Biomarkers play a critical role in the medical care of patients with cancer, including in early detection of the disease, diagnostic accuracy, risk stratification, treatment, and follow-up. Biomarkers in hematological malignancies can support the redefinition of the diagnosis and adjustments in the treatment plan. Biomarkers can be classified into 4 categories: (1) protein antigens, (2) cytogenetic abnormalities, (3) genetic polymorphisms, and (4) gene expression. Efforts in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to observe new biomarkers that contribute to the development of clinical medicine with greater precision in the strategies that improve prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with malignant hematological disease. New biomarkers should accomplish several issues such as the biological plausibility, methodology used, analytical validation, intellectual property registry, and legal framework of application. This knowledge should be transferred to health professionals who can carry out the process of its implementation in clinical practice.