Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze the antitumor effect of BisBAL NP in a mouse melanoma model. Materials and Methods: The antitumor activity of BisBAL NP on murine B16-F10 melanoma cells was determined both in vitro (PrestoBlue cell viability assay and Live/Dead fluorescence) and in vivo, in a mouse model, with the following 15-day treatments: BisBAL NP, negative control (PBS), and cell-death control (docetaxel; DTX). Mouse survival and weight, as well as the tumor volume, were recorded daily during the in vivo study. Results: BisBAL NP were homogeneous in size (mean diameter, 14.7 nm) and bismuth content. In vitro, 0.1 mg/mL BisBAL NP inhibited B16-F10 cell growth stronger (88%) than 0.1 mg/mL DTX (82%) (*p<0.0001). In vivo, tumors in mice treated with BisBAL NP (50 mg/kg/day) or DTX (10 mg/kg/day) were 76% and 85% smaller than the tumors of negative control mice (*p<0.0001). The average weightof mice was 18.1 g and no statistically significant difference was detected among groups during the study. Alopecia was only observed in all DTX-treated mice. The survival rate was 100% for the control and BisBAL NP groups, but one DTX-treated mouse died at the end of the treatment period. The histopathological analysis revealed that exposure to BisBAL NP was cytotoxic for tumor tissue only, without affecting the liver or kidney. Conclusion: BisBAL NP decreased the tumor growing in a mouse melanoma model without secondary effects, constituting an innovative low-cost alternative to treat melanoma.
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