As the understanding of cancer grows, new therapies have been proposed to improve the well-known limitations of current therapies, whose efficiency relies mostly on early detection, surgery and chemotherapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been introduced as a promissory and effective therapy. This fact is due to several useful features of MSCs, such as their accessibility and easy culture and expansion in vitro, and their remarkable ability for 'homing' towards tumors, allowing MSCs to exert their anticancer effects directly into tumors. Additionally, MSCs offer the practicability of being genetically engineered to carry anticancer genes, increasing their specificity and efficacy for fighting tumors. In the present study, the antitumoral efficacy and post-implant survival of mice bearing lymphomas implanted intratumorally were determined using mouse bone marrow-derived (BM)-MSCs transduced with soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL), full length TRAIL (flTRAIL), or interferon β (IFNβ), naïve BM-MSCs, or combinations of these. The percentage of surviving mice was determined once all not-implanted mice succumbed. It was found that the percentage of surviving mice implanted with the combination of MSCs-sTRAIL and MSCs-IFN-β was 62.5%. Lymphoma model achieved 100% fatality in the non-treated group by day 41. On the other hand, the percentage of surviving mice implanted with MSCs-sTRAIL was 50% and with MSCs-INFβ 25%. All the aforementioned differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, all implants exhibited tumor size reduction, growth delay, or apparent tumor clearance. MSCs proved to be effective anti-lymphoma agents; additionally, the combination of soluble TRAIL and IFN-β resulted in the most effective antitumor and life enlarging treatment, showing an additive antitumoral effect compared with individual treatments.
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