Virulence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates recovered from three states of Mexico. Detection of linezolid resistance

Perla López-Salas, Jorge Llaca-Díaz, Rayo Morfin-Otero, Juan Carlos Tinoco, Eduardo Rodriguez-Noriega, Lorena Salcido-Gutierres, Gloria M González, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Elvira Garza-González

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The virulence of Enterococcus faecalis is associated with three proteins involved in biofilm production: Ace, Agg, and Esp. Isolates also vary with respect to drug resistance. The present study investigated four characteristics of clinical isolates of E. faecalis recovered from three hospitals in Mexico, including biofilm production, the presence of biofilm-related genes, antibiotic susceptibility, and clonal diversity.

METHODS: We studied 109 clinical isolates. Biofilm formation was investigated using crystal violet and the safranin method with biofilm index correction. The presence of ace, agg, and esp genes was determined by PCR. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by the broth microdilution method and clonal relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

RESULTS: Using the crystal violet method, 4.6% (5/109) of isolates were high biofilm producers, 48% (52/109) were moderate producers, 20% (39/109) were low producers, and 11% (12/109) were nonproducers. The agg gene was present in 44% (48/109), the ace gene in 39% (43/109), and the esp gene in 33% (36/109). The esp gene was associated with biofilm production (p <0.001), whereas the ace gene correlated with tetracycline resistance (p <0.01). The biofilm index was associated with the presence of both esp plus agg in glucose medium (p = 0.006). Clinical isolates showed high resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Also, 2% of isolates were resistant to linezolid and there was no vancomycin resistance. PFGE revealed 109 different restriction patterns.

CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the esp and agg gene was associated with biofilm production, whereas the presence of the ace gene correlated with tetracycline resistance. Overall, a moderate resistance to antibiotics was detected and there was no clonal relatedness among isolates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)422-8
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Medical Research
Volume44
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013

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Linezolid
Enterococcus faecalis
Biofilms
Microbial Drug Resistance
Mexico
Virulence
Genes
Tetracycline Resistance
Gentian Violet
Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis
Vancomycin Resistance
Anti-Bacterial Agents

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Cite this

López-Salas, P., Llaca-Díaz, J., Morfin-Otero, R., Tinoco, J. C., Rodriguez-Noriega, E., Salcido-Gutierres, L., ... Garza-González, E. (2013). Virulence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates recovered from three states of Mexico. Detection of linezolid resistance. Archives of Medical Research, 44(6), 422-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2013.07.003
López-Salas, Perla ; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge ; Morfin-Otero, Rayo ; Tinoco, Juan Carlos ; Rodriguez-Noriega, Eduardo ; Salcido-Gutierres, Lorena ; González, Gloria M ; Mendoza-Olazarán, Soraya ; Garza-González, Elvira. / Virulence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates recovered from three states of Mexico. Detection of linezolid resistance. In: Archives of Medical Research. 2013 ; Vol. 44, No. 6. pp. 422-8.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The virulence of Enterococcus faecalis is associated with three proteins involved in biofilm production: Ace, Agg, and Esp. Isolates also vary with respect to drug resistance. The present study investigated four characteristics of clinical isolates of E. faecalis recovered from three hospitals in Mexico, including biofilm production, the presence of biofilm-related genes, antibiotic susceptibility, and clonal diversity.METHODS: We studied 109 clinical isolates. Biofilm formation was investigated using crystal violet and the safranin method with biofilm index correction. The presence of ace, agg, and esp genes was determined by PCR. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by the broth microdilution method and clonal relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).RESULTS: Using the crystal violet method, 4.6{\%} (5/109) of isolates were high biofilm producers, 48{\%} (52/109) were moderate producers, 20{\%} (39/109) were low producers, and 11{\%} (12/109) were nonproducers. The agg gene was present in 44{\%} (48/109), the ace gene in 39{\%} (43/109), and the esp gene in 33{\%} (36/109). The esp gene was associated with biofilm production (p <0.001), whereas the ace gene correlated with tetracycline resistance (p <0.01). The biofilm index was associated with the presence of both esp plus agg in glucose medium (p = 0.006). Clinical isolates showed high resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Also, 2{\%} of isolates were resistant to linezolid and there was no vancomycin resistance. PFGE revealed 109 different restriction patterns.CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the esp and agg gene was associated with biofilm production, whereas the presence of the ace gene correlated with tetracycline resistance. Overall, a moderate resistance to antibiotics was detected and there was no clonal relatedness among isolates.",
author = "Perla L{\'o}pez-Salas and Jorge Llaca-D{\'i}az and Rayo Morfin-Otero and Tinoco, {Juan Carlos} and Eduardo Rodriguez-Noriega and Lorena Salcido-Gutierres and Gonz{\'a}lez, {Gloria M} and Soraya Mendoza-Olazar{\'a}n and Elvira Garza-Gonz{\'a}lez",
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López-Salas, P, Llaca-Díaz, J, Morfin-Otero, R, Tinoco, JC, Rodriguez-Noriega, E, Salcido-Gutierres, L, González, GM, Mendoza-Olazarán, S & Garza-González, E 2013, 'Virulence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates recovered from three states of Mexico. Detection of linezolid resistance', Archives of Medical Research, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 422-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2013.07.003

Virulence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates recovered from three states of Mexico. Detection of linezolid resistance. / López-Salas, Perla; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Tinoco, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Salcido-Gutierres, Lorena; González, Gloria M; Mendoza-Olazarán, Soraya; Garza-González, Elvira.

In: Archives of Medical Research, Vol. 44, No. 6, 08.2013, p. 422-8.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Virulence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates recovered from three states of Mexico. Detection of linezolid resistance

AU - López-Salas, Perla

AU - Llaca-Díaz, Jorge

AU - Morfin-Otero, Rayo

AU - Tinoco, Juan Carlos

AU - Rodriguez-Noriega, Eduardo

AU - Salcido-Gutierres, Lorena

AU - González, Gloria M

AU - Mendoza-Olazarán, Soraya

AU - Garza-González, Elvira

N1 - Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PY - 2013/8

Y1 - 2013/8

N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The virulence of Enterococcus faecalis is associated with three proteins involved in biofilm production: Ace, Agg, and Esp. Isolates also vary with respect to drug resistance. The present study investigated four characteristics of clinical isolates of E. faecalis recovered from three hospitals in Mexico, including biofilm production, the presence of biofilm-related genes, antibiotic susceptibility, and clonal diversity.METHODS: We studied 109 clinical isolates. Biofilm formation was investigated using crystal violet and the safranin method with biofilm index correction. The presence of ace, agg, and esp genes was determined by PCR. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by the broth microdilution method and clonal relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).RESULTS: Using the crystal violet method, 4.6% (5/109) of isolates were high biofilm producers, 48% (52/109) were moderate producers, 20% (39/109) were low producers, and 11% (12/109) were nonproducers. The agg gene was present in 44% (48/109), the ace gene in 39% (43/109), and the esp gene in 33% (36/109). The esp gene was associated with biofilm production (p <0.001), whereas the ace gene correlated with tetracycline resistance (p <0.01). The biofilm index was associated with the presence of both esp plus agg in glucose medium (p = 0.006). Clinical isolates showed high resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Also, 2% of isolates were resistant to linezolid and there was no vancomycin resistance. PFGE revealed 109 different restriction patterns.CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the esp and agg gene was associated with biofilm production, whereas the presence of the ace gene correlated with tetracycline resistance. Overall, a moderate resistance to antibiotics was detected and there was no clonal relatedness among isolates.

AB - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The virulence of Enterococcus faecalis is associated with three proteins involved in biofilm production: Ace, Agg, and Esp. Isolates also vary with respect to drug resistance. The present study investigated four characteristics of clinical isolates of E. faecalis recovered from three hospitals in Mexico, including biofilm production, the presence of biofilm-related genes, antibiotic susceptibility, and clonal diversity.METHODS: We studied 109 clinical isolates. Biofilm formation was investigated using crystal violet and the safranin method with biofilm index correction. The presence of ace, agg, and esp genes was determined by PCR. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by the broth microdilution method and clonal relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).RESULTS: Using the crystal violet method, 4.6% (5/109) of isolates were high biofilm producers, 48% (52/109) were moderate producers, 20% (39/109) were low producers, and 11% (12/109) were nonproducers. The agg gene was present in 44% (48/109), the ace gene in 39% (43/109), and the esp gene in 33% (36/109). The esp gene was associated with biofilm production (p <0.001), whereas the ace gene correlated with tetracycline resistance (p <0.01). The biofilm index was associated with the presence of both esp plus agg in glucose medium (p = 0.006). Clinical isolates showed high resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Also, 2% of isolates were resistant to linezolid and there was no vancomycin resistance. PFGE revealed 109 different restriction patterns.CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the esp and agg gene was associated with biofilm production, whereas the presence of the ace gene correlated with tetracycline resistance. Overall, a moderate resistance to antibiotics was detected and there was no clonal relatedness among isolates.

U2 - 10.1016/j.arcmed.2013.07.003

DO - 10.1016/j.arcmed.2013.07.003

M3 - Article

C2 - 23973462

VL - 44

SP - 422

EP - 428

JO - Archives of Medical Research

JF - Archives of Medical Research

SN - 0188-4409

IS - 6

ER -