Helicobacter pylori infection is the most widespread infectious-contagious disease worldwide, reaching a prevalence of 50-80% in developing countries. Chronic infection is considered the main cause of chronic gastritis and has been related to other diseases, such as peptic ulcer, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer. The most common treatment is with eradication regimens that utilize three or four drugs, including a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and the antibiotics, clarithromycin and amoxycillin or metronidazole. Empiric antibiotic use for eradicating the bacterium has led to a growing resistance to those drugs, reducing regimen efficacy and increasing costs for both the patient and the healthcare sector. In such a context, the development of noninvasive next-generation molecular methods holds the promise of revolutionizing the treatment of H. pylori. The genotypic and phenotypic detection of the resistance of the bacterium to antibiotics enables personalized treatment regimens to be provided, reducing costs and implementing an antibiotic stewardship program. The aims of the present narrative review were to analyze and compare the traditional and next-generation methods for diagnosing H. pylori, explain the different factors associated with eradication failure, and emphasize the impact of the increasing antibiotic resistance on the reversal and prevention of H. pylori-associated diseases.
|Translated title of the contribution
|Empiric treatment vs susceptibility-guided treatment for eradicating H. pylori: Is it possible to change that paradigm using modern molecular methods?
|Number of pages
|Revista de Gastroenterologia de Mexico
|Published - 1 Jul 2022
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© 2022 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología
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