Human studies suggest that in utero exposure to arsenic results in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The use of dietary supplements, such as sodium selenite (SS) or α-tocopherol succinate (α-TOS), is a reasonable approach to ameliorate such health effects. Sodium arsenite at 100 ppm was administered via drinking water to female hamsters from gestational days 1 or 8 to the time of delivery. Viable fetuses, fetal resorptions and non-viable fetuses were recorded during and after pregnancy and total arsenic and its metabolites were characterized in pregnant animals, placentas and fetuses. Arsenic was found to accumulate in the placenta and fetus, increasing fetal mortality, non-viable fetuses and resorptions. Co-administration of SS and α-TOS significantly reduced the observed teratogenic effects. SS influenced arsenic biotransformation by reducing the MMA/InAs index and increasing the DMA/MMA, whereas α-TOS more likely exerts its protective effect through its potent antioxidant activity.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This investigation has been supported in part by a grant from the Instituto Mexicano de la Seguridad Social ( FIS/IMSS/PROT/G11/956 ), the Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas , Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León , and the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science ( SAF2008-02933 and SAF2011-23146 ). We would like to thank Dr. Susana Pastor for her advice and help with the statistical analysis.
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