The oncogene Gankyrin is expressed in testicular cancer and contributes to cisplatin sensitivity in embryonal carcinoma cells

Maria E. Camacho-Moll, Joni MacDonald, L. H.J. Looijenga, Michael P. Rimmer, Roland Donat, John A. Marwick, C. J. Shukla, Neil Carragher, Anne Jørgensen, Rod T. Mitchell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) develops from pre-malignant germ neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) cells. GCNIS originates from fetal gonocytes (POU5F1+/MAGE-A4-), which fail to differentiate to pre-spermatogonia (POU5F1-/MAGE-A4+) and undergo malignant transformation. Gankyrin is an oncogene which has been shown to prevent POU5F1 degradation and specifically interact with MAGE-A4 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. We aimed to investigate the role of Gankyrin in progression from gonocyte to pre-invasive GCNIS and subsequent invasive TGCC. Methods: We determined Gankyrin expression in human fetal testicular tissue (gestational weeks 9-20; n = 38), human adult testicular tissue with active spermatogenesis (n = 9), human testicular tissue with germ cell maturation delay (n = 4), testicular tissue from patients with pre-invasive GCNIS (n = 6), and invasive TGCC including seminoma (n = 6) and teratoma (n = 7). Functional analysis was performed in-vitro by siRNA knock-down of Gankyrin in the NTera2 cells (derived from embryonal carcinoma). Results: Germ cell expression of Gankyrin was restricted to a sub-population of prespermatogonia in human fetal testes. Nuclear Gankyrin was also expressed in GCNIS cells of childhood and adult pre-invasive TGCC patients, and in GCNIS from seminoma and non-seminoma patients. Cytoplasmic expression was observed in seminoma tumour cells and NTera2 cells. Gankyrin knock-down in NTera2 cells resulted in an increase in apoptosis mediated via the TP53 pathway, whilst POU5F1 expression was unaffected. Furthermore, Gankyrin knock-down in NTera2 cells increased cisplatin sensitivity with an increase in cell death (13%, p < 0.05) following Gankyrin knock-down, when compared to cisplatin treatment alone, likely via BAX and FAS. Our results demonstrate that Gankyrin expression changes in germ cells during normal transition from gonocyte to prespermatogonia. In addition, changes in Gankyrin localisation are associated with progression of pre-invasive GCNIS to invasive TGCC. Furthermore, we found that Gankyrin is involved in the regulation of NTera2 cell survival and that a reduction in Gankyrin expression can modulate cisplatin sensitivity. Conclusions: These results suggest that manipulation of Gankyrin expression may reduce the cisplatin dose required for the treatment of TGCC, with benefits in reducing dose-dependent side effects of chemotherapy. Further studies are required in order to assess the effects of modulating Gankyrin on GCNIS/TGCC using in vivo models.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1124
JournalBMC Cancer
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Nov 2019

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Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells
Germ Cell and Embryonal Neoplasms
Testicular Neoplasms
Oncogenes
Cisplatin
Seminoma
Germ Cells
Spermatogonia
Teratoma
Spermatogenesis
Small Interfering RNA
Testis
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Neoplasms
Cell Survival
Fetus
Cell Death
Apoptosis
Drug Therapy
Therapeutics

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Camacho-Moll, Maria E. ; MacDonald, Joni ; Looijenga, L. H.J. ; Rimmer, Michael P. ; Donat, Roland ; Marwick, John A. ; Shukla, C. J. ; Carragher, Neil ; Jørgensen, Anne ; Mitchell, Rod T. / The oncogene Gankyrin is expressed in testicular cancer and contributes to cisplatin sensitivity in embryonal carcinoma cells. In: BMC Cancer. 2019 ; Vol. 19, No. 1.
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title = "The oncogene Gankyrin is expressed in testicular cancer and contributes to cisplatin sensitivity in embryonal carcinoma cells",
abstract = "Background: Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) develops from pre-malignant germ neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) cells. GCNIS originates from fetal gonocytes (POU5F1+/MAGE-A4-), which fail to differentiate to pre-spermatogonia (POU5F1-/MAGE-A4+) and undergo malignant transformation. Gankyrin is an oncogene which has been shown to prevent POU5F1 degradation and specifically interact with MAGE-A4 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. We aimed to investigate the role of Gankyrin in progression from gonocyte to pre-invasive GCNIS and subsequent invasive TGCC. Methods: We determined Gankyrin expression in human fetal testicular tissue (gestational weeks 9-20; n = 38), human adult testicular tissue with active spermatogenesis (n = 9), human testicular tissue with germ cell maturation delay (n = 4), testicular tissue from patients with pre-invasive GCNIS (n = 6), and invasive TGCC including seminoma (n = 6) and teratoma (n = 7). Functional analysis was performed in-vitro by siRNA knock-down of Gankyrin in the NTera2 cells (derived from embryonal carcinoma). Results: Germ cell expression of Gankyrin was restricted to a sub-population of prespermatogonia in human fetal testes. Nuclear Gankyrin was also expressed in GCNIS cells of childhood and adult pre-invasive TGCC patients, and in GCNIS from seminoma and non-seminoma patients. Cytoplasmic expression was observed in seminoma tumour cells and NTera2 cells. Gankyrin knock-down in NTera2 cells resulted in an increase in apoptosis mediated via the TP53 pathway, whilst POU5F1 expression was unaffected. Furthermore, Gankyrin knock-down in NTera2 cells increased cisplatin sensitivity with an increase in cell death (13{\%}, p < 0.05) following Gankyrin knock-down, when compared to cisplatin treatment alone, likely via BAX and FAS. Our results demonstrate that Gankyrin expression changes in germ cells during normal transition from gonocyte to prespermatogonia. In addition, changes in Gankyrin localisation are associated with progression of pre-invasive GCNIS to invasive TGCC. Furthermore, we found that Gankyrin is involved in the regulation of NTera2 cell survival and that a reduction in Gankyrin expression can modulate cisplatin sensitivity. Conclusions: These results suggest that manipulation of Gankyrin expression may reduce the cisplatin dose required for the treatment of TGCC, with benefits in reducing dose-dependent side effects of chemotherapy. Further studies are required in order to assess the effects of modulating Gankyrin on GCNIS/TGCC using in vivo models.",
author = "Camacho-Moll, {Maria E.} and Joni MacDonald and Looijenga, {L. H.J.} and Rimmer, {Michael P.} and Roland Donat and Marwick, {John A.} and Shukla, {C. J.} and Neil Carragher and Anne J{\o}rgensen and Mitchell, {Rod T.}",
year = "2019",
month = "11",
day = "19",
doi = "10.1186/s12885-019-6340-7",
language = "English",
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Camacho-Moll, ME, MacDonald, J, Looijenga, LHJ, Rimmer, MP, Donat, R, Marwick, JA, Shukla, CJ, Carragher, N, Jørgensen, A & Mitchell, RT 2019, 'The oncogene Gankyrin is expressed in testicular cancer and contributes to cisplatin sensitivity in embryonal carcinoma cells', BMC Cancer, vol. 19, no. 1, 1124. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-6340-7

The oncogene Gankyrin is expressed in testicular cancer and contributes to cisplatin sensitivity in embryonal carcinoma cells. / Camacho-Moll, Maria E.; MacDonald, Joni; Looijenga, L. H.J.; Rimmer, Michael P.; Donat, Roland; Marwick, John A.; Shukla, C. J.; Carragher, Neil; Jørgensen, Anne; Mitchell, Rod T.

In: BMC Cancer, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1124, 19.11.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - The oncogene Gankyrin is expressed in testicular cancer and contributes to cisplatin sensitivity in embryonal carcinoma cells

AU - Camacho-Moll, Maria E.

AU - MacDonald, Joni

AU - Looijenga, L. H.J.

AU - Rimmer, Michael P.

AU - Donat, Roland

AU - Marwick, John A.

AU - Shukla, C. J.

AU - Carragher, Neil

AU - Jørgensen, Anne

AU - Mitchell, Rod T.

PY - 2019/11/19

Y1 - 2019/11/19

N2 - Background: Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) develops from pre-malignant germ neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) cells. GCNIS originates from fetal gonocytes (POU5F1+/MAGE-A4-), which fail to differentiate to pre-spermatogonia (POU5F1-/MAGE-A4+) and undergo malignant transformation. Gankyrin is an oncogene which has been shown to prevent POU5F1 degradation and specifically interact with MAGE-A4 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. We aimed to investigate the role of Gankyrin in progression from gonocyte to pre-invasive GCNIS and subsequent invasive TGCC. Methods: We determined Gankyrin expression in human fetal testicular tissue (gestational weeks 9-20; n = 38), human adult testicular tissue with active spermatogenesis (n = 9), human testicular tissue with germ cell maturation delay (n = 4), testicular tissue from patients with pre-invasive GCNIS (n = 6), and invasive TGCC including seminoma (n = 6) and teratoma (n = 7). Functional analysis was performed in-vitro by siRNA knock-down of Gankyrin in the NTera2 cells (derived from embryonal carcinoma). Results: Germ cell expression of Gankyrin was restricted to a sub-population of prespermatogonia in human fetal testes. Nuclear Gankyrin was also expressed in GCNIS cells of childhood and adult pre-invasive TGCC patients, and in GCNIS from seminoma and non-seminoma patients. Cytoplasmic expression was observed in seminoma tumour cells and NTera2 cells. Gankyrin knock-down in NTera2 cells resulted in an increase in apoptosis mediated via the TP53 pathway, whilst POU5F1 expression was unaffected. Furthermore, Gankyrin knock-down in NTera2 cells increased cisplatin sensitivity with an increase in cell death (13%, p < 0.05) following Gankyrin knock-down, when compared to cisplatin treatment alone, likely via BAX and FAS. Our results demonstrate that Gankyrin expression changes in germ cells during normal transition from gonocyte to prespermatogonia. In addition, changes in Gankyrin localisation are associated with progression of pre-invasive GCNIS to invasive TGCC. Furthermore, we found that Gankyrin is involved in the regulation of NTera2 cell survival and that a reduction in Gankyrin expression can modulate cisplatin sensitivity. Conclusions: These results suggest that manipulation of Gankyrin expression may reduce the cisplatin dose required for the treatment of TGCC, with benefits in reducing dose-dependent side effects of chemotherapy. Further studies are required in order to assess the effects of modulating Gankyrin on GCNIS/TGCC using in vivo models.

AB - Background: Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) develops from pre-malignant germ neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) cells. GCNIS originates from fetal gonocytes (POU5F1+/MAGE-A4-), which fail to differentiate to pre-spermatogonia (POU5F1-/MAGE-A4+) and undergo malignant transformation. Gankyrin is an oncogene which has been shown to prevent POU5F1 degradation and specifically interact with MAGE-A4 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. We aimed to investigate the role of Gankyrin in progression from gonocyte to pre-invasive GCNIS and subsequent invasive TGCC. Methods: We determined Gankyrin expression in human fetal testicular tissue (gestational weeks 9-20; n = 38), human adult testicular tissue with active spermatogenesis (n = 9), human testicular tissue with germ cell maturation delay (n = 4), testicular tissue from patients with pre-invasive GCNIS (n = 6), and invasive TGCC including seminoma (n = 6) and teratoma (n = 7). Functional analysis was performed in-vitro by siRNA knock-down of Gankyrin in the NTera2 cells (derived from embryonal carcinoma). Results: Germ cell expression of Gankyrin was restricted to a sub-population of prespermatogonia in human fetal testes. Nuclear Gankyrin was also expressed in GCNIS cells of childhood and adult pre-invasive TGCC patients, and in GCNIS from seminoma and non-seminoma patients. Cytoplasmic expression was observed in seminoma tumour cells and NTera2 cells. Gankyrin knock-down in NTera2 cells resulted in an increase in apoptosis mediated via the TP53 pathway, whilst POU5F1 expression was unaffected. Furthermore, Gankyrin knock-down in NTera2 cells increased cisplatin sensitivity with an increase in cell death (13%, p < 0.05) following Gankyrin knock-down, when compared to cisplatin treatment alone, likely via BAX and FAS. Our results demonstrate that Gankyrin expression changes in germ cells during normal transition from gonocyte to prespermatogonia. In addition, changes in Gankyrin localisation are associated with progression of pre-invasive GCNIS to invasive TGCC. Furthermore, we found that Gankyrin is involved in the regulation of NTera2 cell survival and that a reduction in Gankyrin expression can modulate cisplatin sensitivity. Conclusions: These results suggest that manipulation of Gankyrin expression may reduce the cisplatin dose required for the treatment of TGCC, with benefits in reducing dose-dependent side effects of chemotherapy. Further studies are required in order to assess the effects of modulating Gankyrin on GCNIS/TGCC using in vivo models.

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