The Independent Gradient Model: A New Approach for Probing Strong and Weak Interactions in Molecules from Wave Function Calculations

J. E. Contreras, Edén Rodriguez, Jaime Taha-Tijerina

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review

259 Citations (Scopus)


Extraction of the chemical interaction signature from local descriptors based on electron density (ED) is still a fruitful field of development in chemical interpretation. In a previous work that used promolecular ED (frozen ED), the new descriptor, δg, was defined. It represents the difference between a virtual upper limit of the ED gradient (|∇ρ IGM|, IGM = independent gradient model) that represents a noninteracting system and the true ED gradient (|∇ρ|). It can be seen as a measure of electron sharing brought by ED contragradience. A compelling feature of this model is to provide an automatic workflow that extracts the signature of interactions between selected groups of atoms. As with the noncovalent interaction (NCI) approach, it provides chemists with a visual understanding of the interactions present in chemical systems. |∇ρ IGM| is achieved simply by using absolute values upon summing the individual gradient contributions that make up the total ED gradient. Hereby, we extend this model to relaxed ED calculated from a wave function. To this end, we formulated gradient-based partitioning (GBP) to assess the contribution of each orbital to the total ED gradient. We highlight these new possibilities across two prototypical examples of organic chemistry: the unconventional hexamethylbenzene dication, with a hexa-coordinated carbon atom, and β-thioaminoacrolein. It will be shown how a bond-by-bond picture can be obtained from a wave function, which opens the way to monitor specific interactions along reaction paths.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Nanomaterials for Industrial Applications
Place of PublicationNetherlands
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)978-0-12-813351-4
Publication statusPublished - 19 Mar 2018

Publication series

PublisherWiley-VCH Verlag
ISSN (Print)1439-4235

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)


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