Sharply higher rates of iron deficiency in obese Mexican women and children are predicted by obesity-related inflammation rather than by differences in dietary iron intake

Ana C. Cepeda-Lopez, Saskia J.M. Osendarp, Alida Melse-Boonstra, Isabelle Aeberli, Francisco Gonzalez-Salazar, Edith Feskens, Salvador Villalpando, Michael B. Zimmermann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Obese individuals may be at increased risk of iron deficiency (ID), but it is unclear whether this is due to poor dietary iron intakes or to adiposity-related inflammation. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relations between body mass index (BMI), dietary iron, and dietary factors affecting iron bioavailability, iron status, and inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)] in a transition country where obesity and ID are common. Design: Data from the 1999 Mexican Nutrition Survey, which included 1174 children (aged 5-12 y) and 621 nonpregnant women (aged 18-50 y), were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 25.3% in women and 3.5% in children. The prevalence of ID was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in obese women and children compared with normal-weight subjects [odds ratios (95% CIs): 1.92 (1.23, 3.01) and 3.96 (1.34, 11.67) for women and children, respectively]. Despite similar dietary iron intakes in the 2 groups, serum iron concentrations were lower in obese women than in normal-weight women (62.6 ± 29.5 compared with 72.4 ± 34.6 μg/dL; P = 0.014), and total-iron-binding capacity was higher in obese children than in normal-weight children (399 ± 51 compared with 360 ± 48 μg/dL; P < 0.001). CRP concentrations in obese women and children were 4 times those of their normal-weight counterparts (P < 0.05). CRP but not iron intake was a strong negative predictor of iron status, independently of BMI (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The risk of ID in obese Mexican women and children was 2-4 times that of normal-weight individuals at similar dietary iron intakes. This increased risk of ID may be due to the effects of obesity-related inflammation on dietary iron absorption. Thus, ID control efforts in Mexico may be hampered by increasing rates of adiposity in women and children. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)975-983
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2011

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Dietary Iron
Pediatric Obesity
Iron
Inflammation
Weights and Measures
C-Reactive Protein
Obesity
Adiposity
Body Mass Index
Nutrition Surveys
Mexico
Biological Availability

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

@article{8cd0e719d4f644ea8d1c750d0ff94f72,
title = "Sharply higher rates of iron deficiency in obese Mexican women and children are predicted by obesity-related inflammation rather than by differences in dietary iron intake",
abstract = "Background: Obese individuals may be at increased risk of iron deficiency (ID), but it is unclear whether this is due to poor dietary iron intakes or to adiposity-related inflammation. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relations between body mass index (BMI), dietary iron, and dietary factors affecting iron bioavailability, iron status, and inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)] in a transition country where obesity and ID are common. Design: Data from the 1999 Mexican Nutrition Survey, which included 1174 children (aged 5-12 y) and 621 nonpregnant women (aged 18-50 y), were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 25.3{\%} in women and 3.5{\%} in children. The prevalence of ID was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in obese women and children compared with normal-weight subjects [odds ratios (95{\%} CIs): 1.92 (1.23, 3.01) and 3.96 (1.34, 11.67) for women and children, respectively]. Despite similar dietary iron intakes in the 2 groups, serum iron concentrations were lower in obese women than in normal-weight women (62.6 ± 29.5 compared with 72.4 ± 34.6 μg/dL; P = 0.014), and total-iron-binding capacity was higher in obese children than in normal-weight children (399 ± 51 compared with 360 ± 48 μg/dL; P < 0.001). CRP concentrations in obese women and children were 4 times those of their normal-weight counterparts (P < 0.05). CRP but not iron intake was a strong negative predictor of iron status, independently of BMI (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The risk of ID in obese Mexican women and children was 2-4 times that of normal-weight individuals at similar dietary iron intakes. This increased risk of ID may be due to the effects of obesity-related inflammation on dietary iron absorption. Thus, ID control efforts in Mexico may be hampered by increasing rates of adiposity in women and children. {\circledC} 2011 American Society for Nutrition.",
author = "Cepeda-Lopez, {Ana C.} and Osendarp, {Saskia J.M.} and Alida Melse-Boonstra and Isabelle Aeberli and Francisco Gonzalez-Salazar and Edith Feskens and Salvador Villalpando and Zimmermann, {Michael B.}",
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Sharply higher rates of iron deficiency in obese Mexican women and children are predicted by obesity-related inflammation rather than by differences in dietary iron intake. / Cepeda-Lopez, Ana C.; Osendarp, Saskia J.M.; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Aeberli, Isabelle; Gonzalez-Salazar, Francisco; Feskens, Edith; Villalpando, Salvador; Zimmermann, Michael B.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 01.05.2011, p. 975-983.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sharply higher rates of iron deficiency in obese Mexican women and children are predicted by obesity-related inflammation rather than by differences in dietary iron intake

AU - Cepeda-Lopez, Ana C.

AU - Osendarp, Saskia J.M.

AU - Melse-Boonstra, Alida

AU - Aeberli, Isabelle

AU - Gonzalez-Salazar, Francisco

AU - Feskens, Edith

AU - Villalpando, Salvador

AU - Zimmermann, Michael B.

PY - 2011/5/1

Y1 - 2011/5/1

N2 - Background: Obese individuals may be at increased risk of iron deficiency (ID), but it is unclear whether this is due to poor dietary iron intakes or to adiposity-related inflammation. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relations between body mass index (BMI), dietary iron, and dietary factors affecting iron bioavailability, iron status, and inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)] in a transition country where obesity and ID are common. Design: Data from the 1999 Mexican Nutrition Survey, which included 1174 children (aged 5-12 y) and 621 nonpregnant women (aged 18-50 y), were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 25.3% in women and 3.5% in children. The prevalence of ID was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in obese women and children compared with normal-weight subjects [odds ratios (95% CIs): 1.92 (1.23, 3.01) and 3.96 (1.34, 11.67) for women and children, respectively]. Despite similar dietary iron intakes in the 2 groups, serum iron concentrations were lower in obese women than in normal-weight women (62.6 ± 29.5 compared with 72.4 ± 34.6 μg/dL; P = 0.014), and total-iron-binding capacity was higher in obese children than in normal-weight children (399 ± 51 compared with 360 ± 48 μg/dL; P < 0.001). CRP concentrations in obese women and children were 4 times those of their normal-weight counterparts (P < 0.05). CRP but not iron intake was a strong negative predictor of iron status, independently of BMI (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The risk of ID in obese Mexican women and children was 2-4 times that of normal-weight individuals at similar dietary iron intakes. This increased risk of ID may be due to the effects of obesity-related inflammation on dietary iron absorption. Thus, ID control efforts in Mexico may be hampered by increasing rates of adiposity in women and children. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.

AB - Background: Obese individuals may be at increased risk of iron deficiency (ID), but it is unclear whether this is due to poor dietary iron intakes or to adiposity-related inflammation. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relations between body mass index (BMI), dietary iron, and dietary factors affecting iron bioavailability, iron status, and inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)] in a transition country where obesity and ID are common. Design: Data from the 1999 Mexican Nutrition Survey, which included 1174 children (aged 5-12 y) and 621 nonpregnant women (aged 18-50 y), were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 25.3% in women and 3.5% in children. The prevalence of ID was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in obese women and children compared with normal-weight subjects [odds ratios (95% CIs): 1.92 (1.23, 3.01) and 3.96 (1.34, 11.67) for women and children, respectively]. Despite similar dietary iron intakes in the 2 groups, serum iron concentrations were lower in obese women than in normal-weight women (62.6 ± 29.5 compared with 72.4 ± 34.6 μg/dL; P = 0.014), and total-iron-binding capacity was higher in obese children than in normal-weight children (399 ± 51 compared with 360 ± 48 μg/dL; P < 0.001). CRP concentrations in obese women and children were 4 times those of their normal-weight counterparts (P < 0.05). CRP but not iron intake was a strong negative predictor of iron status, independently of BMI (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The risk of ID in obese Mexican women and children was 2-4 times that of normal-weight individuals at similar dietary iron intakes. This increased risk of ID may be due to the effects of obesity-related inflammation on dietary iron absorption. Thus, ID control efforts in Mexico may be hampered by increasing rates of adiposity in women and children. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.

U2 - 10.3945/ajcn.110.005439

DO - 10.3945/ajcn.110.005439

M3 - Article

SP - 975

EP - 983

JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

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