Risk Factors for SARS-CoV-2 Infection, Pneumonia, Intubation, and Death in Northeast Mexico

Hid Felizardo Cordero-Franco, Laura Hermila De La Garza-Salinas, Salvador Gomez-Garcia, Jorge E. Moreno-Cuevas, Javier Vargas-Villarreal, Francisco González-Salazar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Despite the social distancing and mobility restriction measures implemented for susceptible people around the world, infections and deaths due to COVID-19 continued to increase, even more so in the first months of 2021 in Mexico. Thus, it is necessary to find risk groups that can benefit from more aggressive preventive measures in a high-density population. This is a case-control study of suspected COVID-19 patients from Nuevo León, Mexico. Cases were: (1) COVID-19-positive patients and COVID-19-positive patients who (2) developed pneumonia, (3) were intubated and (4) died. Controls were: (1) COVID-19-negative patients, (2) COVID-19-positive patients without pneumonia, (3) non-intubated COVID-19-positive patients and (4) surviving COVID-19-positive patients. ≥ 18 years of age, not pregnant, were included. The pre-existing conditions analysed as risk factors were age (years), sex (male), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, immunosuppression, obesity, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and smoking. The Mann-Whitney U tests, Chi square and binary logistic regression were used. A total of 56,715 suspected patients were analysed in Nuevo León, México, with 62.6% being positive for COVID-19 and, of those infected, 14% developed pneumonia, 2.9% were intubated and 8.1% died. The mean age of those infected was 44.7 years, while of those complicated it was around 60 years. Older age, male sex, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity were risk factors for infection, complications, and death from COVID-19. This study highlights the importance of timely recognition of the population exposed to pre-existing conditions to prioritise preventive measures against the virus.

Original languageEnglish
Article number645739
Pages (from-to)645739
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors must thank to University of Monterrey and Mexican Institute of Social Security for the support provided for the completion and publication of this work.

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2021 Cordero-Franco, De La Garza-Salinas, Gomez-Garcia, Moreno-Cuevas, Vargas-Villarreal and González-Salazar.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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