Quantum gravity phenomenology at the dawn of the multi-messenger era—A review

A. Addazi, J. Alvarez-Muniz, R. Alves Batista, G. Amelino-Camelia, V. Antonelli, M. Arzano, M. Asorey, J. L. Atteia, S. Bahamonde, F. Bajardi, A. Ballesteros, B. Baret, D. M. Barreiros, S. Basilakos, D. Benisty, O. Birnholtz, J. J. Blanco-Pillado, D. Blas, J. Bolmont, D. BoncioliP. Bosso, G. Calcagni, S. Capozziello, J. M. Carmona*, S. Cerci, M. Chernyakova, S. Clesse, J. A.B. Coelho, S. M. Colak, J. L. Cortes, S. Das, V. D'Esposito, M. Demirci, M. G. Di Luca, A. di Matteo, D. Dimitrijevic, G. Djordjevic, D. Dominis Prester, A. Eichhorn, J. Ellis, C. Escamilla-Rivera, G. Fabiano, S. A. Franchino-Viñas, A. M. Frassino, D. Frattulillo, S. Funk, A. Fuster, J. Gamboa, A. Gent, H. Martínez-Huerta

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

218 Citations (Scopus)


The exploration of the universe has recently entered a new era thanks to the multi-messenger paradigm, characterized by a continuous increase in the quantity and quality of experimental data that is obtained by the detection of the various cosmic messengers (photons, neutrinos, cosmic rays and gravitational waves) from numerous origins. They give us information about their sources in the universe and the properties of the intergalactic medium. Moreover, multi-messenger astronomy opens up the possibility to search for phenomenological signatures of quantum gravity. On the one hand, the most energetic events allow us to test our physical theories at energy regimes which are not directly accessible in accelerators; on the other hand, tiny effects in the propagation of very high energy particles could be amplified by cosmological distances. After decades of merely theoretical investigations, the possibility of obtaining phenomenological indications of Planck-scale effects is a revolutionary step in the quest for a quantum theory of gravity, but it requires cooperation between different communities of physicists (both theoretical and experimental). This review, prepared within the COST Action CA18108 “Quantum gravity phenomenology in the multi-messenger approach”, is aimed at promoting this cooperation by giving a state-of-the art account of the interdisciplinary expertise that is needed in the effective search of quantum gravity footprints in the production, propagation and detection of cosmic messengers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103948
JournalProgress in Particle and Nuclear Physics
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Talent Scientific Research Program of College of Physics, Sichuan University , Grant No. 1082204112427 ; the Fostering Program in Disciplines Possessing Novel Features for Natural Science of Sichuan University , Grant No. 2020SCUNL209 ; 1000 Talent program of Sichuan province 2021 ; Xunta de Galicia (Centro singular de investigación de Galicia accreditation 2019–2022); European Union ERDF , “María de Maeztu” Units of Excellence program ( MDM-2016-0692 ); Red Temática Nacional de Astropartículas ( RED2018-102661-T ); “la Caixa” Foundation ( ID 100010434 ); European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 847648 , fellowship code LCF/BQ/PI21/11830030, and grant agreement No. 754510 ; Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development Contract No. ( 451-03-9/2021-14/200124 ); FSR Incoming Postdoctoral Fellowship Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development , Serbia ( 451-03-9/2021-14/200124 ); University of Rijeka grant ( uniri-prirod-18-48 ); Croatian Science Foundation (HRZZ) project number IP-2016-06-9782 ; Villum Fonden ( 29405 ); DGA-FSE [ 2020-E21-17R ]; European Regional Development Fund through the Center of Excellence (TK133) “The Dark Side of the Universe”; European Regional Development Fund (ESIF/ERDF) and the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MŠMT) [Project CoGraDS-CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15 003/0000437 ]; Blavatnik & Rothchild grants ; Basque Government grant ( IT-979-16 ); Basque Foundation for Science (IKERBASQUE); ESA Prodex grants C4000120711 , 4000132310 ; FNRS (Belgian Fund for Research) ; DGAPA-PAPIIT-UNAM [ TA100122 ]; UNLP (X909); DICYT 042131GR (J.G.); Hungarian National Research Development and Innovation Office NKFIH (Grant No. 123996 ); FQXi ; Swiss National Science Foundation ( 181461 , 199307 ); Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek - NWO (grant numbers 680-91-119 , 15MV71 , and sectorplan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI Grant ( 20H01899 , 20H05853 and JP21F21789 ); Estonian Research Council grants ( PRG356 ) “Gauge Gravity”, and MOBTT5 ; Julian Schwinger Foundation ; Generalitat Valenciana Excellence Grant [ PROMETEO-II/2017/033 ] and [ PROMETEO/2018/165 ]; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Iniziativa Specifica TEONGRAV, Iniziativa Specifica QGSKY, Iniziativa Specifica QUAGRAP and Iniziativa Specifica GeoSymQFT ; European ITN project HIDDeN ( H2020-MSCA-ITN-2019//860881-HIDDeN ); Swedish Research Council ( 2016-05996 ); European Research Council ( 668679 ); Advanced ERC grant TReX; Research grant “The Dark Universe: A Synergic Multimessenger Approach”, No. [ 2017X7X85K ] under the program PRIN 2017 funded by the Ministero dell’Istruzione, Universit‘a e della Ricerca (MIUR) ; MIUR through the “Dipartimenti di eccellenza” project Science of the Universe; Research Council of University of Guilan ; I.I.S.N. project 4.4501.18; Romanian Ministry of Research Innovation and Digitalization through the projects No. PN19-030102-INCDFM and CNCS - UEFISCDI No. PN-III-P4-ID-PCE-2020-2374 ; U.S. Department of Energy ( DE-SC0020262 , Task C); State project “Science” by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation ( 075-15-2020-778 ); German Academic Scholarship Foundation ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG - through grant numbers ( 408049454 , 420243324 , 425333893 , 445990517 ) and under Germany’s Excellence Strategy (EXC 2121 “Quantum Universe” – 390833306, EXC 2123 “QuantumFrontiers” - 390837967); Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung - BMBF (grants 05 A20GU2 and 05 A20PX1 ); Centro de Excelencia “Severo Ochoa” ( SEV-2016-0588 ); CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya ; AGAUR, Generalitat de Catalunya ( 2017-SGR-1469 , 2017-SGR-929 ); ICCUB ( CEX2019-000918-M ); National Science Centre ( 2019/33/B/ST2/00050 ) and ( 2017/27/B/ST2/01902 ); National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq [ 306414/2020-1 ]; Dicyt-USACH ( 041931MF ); Bulgarian NSF grant KP-06-N 38/11 ; RCN ROMFORSK grant project. no. 302640 ; Comunidad de Madrid, Spain, “Atracción de Talento Investigador” programme , grants No. 2018-T1/TIC-10431 and 2019-T1/TIC-13177 ; Comunidad de Madrid , Spain ( S2018/NMT-4291 “TEC2SPACECM“, “Desarrollo y explotación de nuevas tecnologías para instrumentación espacial en la Comunidad de Madrid”); Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) UK , grants ST/T000759/1 , ST/P000258/1 , ST/T000732/1 , ST/V005596/1 ; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia , Portugal, projects UIDB/00618/2020, UIDB/00777/2020, UIDP/00777/2020, CERN/FIS-PAR/0004/2019, PTDC/FIS-PAR/29436/2017, PTDC/FIS-PAR/31938/2017, PTDC/FIS-OUT/29048/2017, and grant SFRH/BD/137127/2018 ; UID/MAT/00212/2020 ; FPU18/04571 ; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), LabEx UnivEarthS ( ANR-10-LABX-0023 and ANR18-IDEX-0001 ); Junta de Andalucía [ref. A-FQM-053-UGR18 ], Spain; NSERC ( RGPIN-2021-03644 ); National Science Centre Poland Sonata Bis Grant No. DEC-2017/26/E/ST2/00763 and Project No. 2019/33/B/ST2/00050; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council ; DGIID-DGA ( 2015-E24/2 ); Spanish Research State Agency and Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 : PID2019-104114RB-C32 , PID2019-105544GB-I00 , PID2019-105614GB-C21 , PID2019-106515GB-I00 , PID2019-106802GB-I00 , PID2019-107394GB-I00 , PID2019-107844GB-C21 , PID2019-107847RB-C41 ,  PID2019-108485GB-I00 , PID2020-113334GB-I00 , PID2020-113701GB-I00 , PID2020-113775GB-I00 , PID2020-115845GB-I00 , PID2020-118159GB-C41 , PID2020-118159GA-C42 , PRE2019-089024 ; MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033/FEDER :  PGC2018-095328-B-I00 , PGC2018-094856-B-I00 , PGC2018-096663-B-C41 , PGC2018-096663-B-C44 , PGC2018-094626-B-C21 , PGC2018-101858-B-I00 , FPA2017-84543-P , FPA2016-76005-C2-1-P ; Ayuda Beatriz Galindo Senior’ from the Spanish ‘ Ministerio de Universidades ’, grant BG20/00228 , and the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation PID2020-115845GB-I00/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 . IFAE is partially funded by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya ; Comunidad de Madrid S2018/NMT-4291 TEC2SPACE-CM ; Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad, Spain ( PID2019-105544GB-I00 ).

Funding Information:
S. Mukherjee, D. Minic, A. Platania and M. Schiffer acknowledge support by Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics. Research at Perimeter Institute is supported in part by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Colleges and Universities . N. Stergioulas gratefully acknowledges the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research , for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. E. Guendelman thanks the Fundamental Questions Institute (FQXi) for financial support.

Funding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge networking support by the COST Action CA18108.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics


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