Optimization of milling parameters of 1018 steel and nanoparticle additive concentration in cutting fluids for enhancing multi-response characteristics

Laura Peña-Parás*, Demófilo Maldonado-Cortés, Martha Rodríguez-Villalobos, Angel G. Romero-Cantú, Oscar E. Montemayor, Mónica Herrera, Gabriela Trousselle, Jaime González, Walter Hugler

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, the optimization of the processing parameters and nanoparticle additive concentration in the cutting fluid for a milling process carried by Computer Numerical Control (CNC) was performed. Machining operations commonly present high wear on the cutting inserts. This translates into a limited tool lifespan, poor surface finish of the workpiece, and high energy consumption by the process, as well as high manufacturing costs. The nanoparticle (NP) selected for this study was a montmorillonite clay (MMT) due to being naturally occurring, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly. Nanolubricants were prepared with a MMT clay concentration of 0.2 and 0.3 wt%. A three level Box Behnken experimental design was performed in order to optimize the input parameters for milling of an AISI 1018 steel, such as: cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and nanoparticle concentration in the cutting fluid. A total of 27 different combinations of these parameters were done by this method. Response characteristics investigated were: spindle load (related to power consumption), cutting insert radius (wear), and surface roughness (quality of the AISI 1018 steel work-piece). For the spindle load, it was found that NP addition had a significant effect. The results of the model for this response parameter indicate that the determination coefficient (R2) was 99%. The R2 of the model for the cutting insert radius was 93% and the results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that NPs had a significant effect when combined with the parameters of cutting speed and feed rate. The optimal range of values for the four input parameters that enhanced all three response characteristics were: a cutting speed of 1145–1182 rpm, depth of cut of 0.02–0.03 in, feed rate of 7–8 in/min, and MMT clay NP concentration of 0.13–0.15 wt%. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the benefit of green nanoadditives in cutting fluids and optimization of processing parameters for enhancing the efficiency of milling processes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)877-886
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2019
Event22nd International Conference on Wear of Materials 2019 - Hyatt Regency Miami, Miami, United States
Duration: 14 Apr 201918 Apr 2019
Conference number: 22

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier B.V.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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