BACKGROUND: Bacterial species from the ESKAPE group (i.e. Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species) are frequently resistant to antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to monitor the incidence of ESKAPE pathogens at the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care hospital in Monterrey, Mexico.
METHODS: All clinically relevant organisms isolated from June 2011 to June 2012 were included. Identification and susceptibility testing was performed using panels from Sensititre. Resistance to oxacillin, for S. aureus, and the production of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), for K. pneumonia, were determined as defined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Also, the presence of vanA and vanB genes was determined in E. faecium vancomycin (VAN)-resistant isolates.
RESULTS: The majority of pathogens (64.5%) isolated in the ICU unit were from the ESKAPE group. The organisms most frequently isolated were A. baumannii (15.8%) and P. aeruginosa (14.3%). A high resistance to carbapenems was detected for A. baumannii (75.3%) while 62% of S. aureus isolates were confirmed to be methicillin resistant. Of the K. pneumoniae isolates, 36.9% were ESBL producers. We detected three E. faecium VAN-resistant isolates, all of which contained the vanA gene.
CONCLUSION: The presence of the ESKAPE group of pathogens is a major problem in the ICU setting. The results of this study support the implementation of special antimicrobial strategies to specifically target these microorganisms.