Obtaining ready-to-eat blue corn expanded snacks with anthocyanins using an extrusion process and response surface methodology

Anayansi Escalante-Aburto, Benjamín Ramírez-Wong, Patricia Isabel Torres-Chávez, Jaime López-Cervantes, Juan Dios De Figueroa-Cárdenas, Jesús Manuel Barrón-Hoyos, Ignacio Morales-Rosas, Néstor Ponce García, Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Extrusion is an alternative technology for the production of nixtamalized products. The aim of this study was to obtain an expanded nixtamalized snack with whole blue corn and using the extrusion process, to preserve the highest possible total anthocyanin content, intense blue/purple coloration (color b) and the highest expansion index. A central composite experimental design was used. The extrusion process factors were: feed moisture (FM, 15%-23%), calcium hydroxide concentration (CHC, 0%-0.25%) and final extruder temperature (T, 110-150 ° C). The chemical and physical properties evaluated in the extrudates were moisture content (MC, %), total anthocyanins (TA, mg•kg -1), pH, color (L, a, b) and expansion index (EI). ANOVA and surface response methodology were applied to evaluate the effects of the extrusion factors. FM and T significantly affected the response variables. An optimization step was performed by overlaying three contour plots to predict the best combination region. The extrudates were obtained under the following optimum factors: FM (%) = 16.94, CHC (%) = 0.095 and T (° C) = 141.89. The predicted extrusion processing factors were highly accurate, yielding an expanded nixtamalized snack with 158.87 mg•kg -1 TA (estimated: 160 mg•kg -1 ), an EI of 3.19 (estimated: 2.66), and color parameter b of -0.44 (estimated: 0.10).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21066-21084
Number of pages19
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2014
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 by the authors licensee MDPI Basel Switzerland.

Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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