Background: Retinoblastoma (Rb) most frequently presents as a unilateral sporadic disease up to 40% of cases, however, arise from a monoallelic germline pathogenic variant. Only 10% of the germline mutations are inherited, and high penetrance is seen in up to 90% of these cases. As an effort to optimize counseling and screening, mutations are classified according to inheritance patterns. However, RB1 spectrum is highly heterogeneous, and information for unaffected carriers remains scarce. Materials and methods: The Mexican family of a 5-month-old patient diagnosed with Rb was studied. The family consisted of five individuals (father, mother, and three siblings). Genetic testing using a next-generation sequencing assay targeting RB1 with oligonucleotide baits designed to capture its exons and 20 bases flanking intronic sequences was performed in every family member. Clinical history and a complete ophthalmological examination (best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, macular optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography angiography, and electrophysiological studies) were performed in members testing positive to RB1 mutation. Results: The father and her five-month-old daughter tested positive for a non-synonymous RB1 mutation c.459del (p.Lys154Serfs*21). The girl presented with bilateral retinoblastoma, successfully treated with cryotherapy and intravenous chemotherapy. The father had no relevant findings on imaging studies or ophthalmologic evaluation. Conclusions: This report describes a rare case of a novel low-penetrance RB1 germline mutation. Long-term follow-up of the father will include periodic evaluation of the eyes and orbits, and surveillance for systemic sarcoma and secondary malignancies. Implications for unaffected individuals need to be further studied.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. We thank José F. Rocha-Sánchez for his valuable contribution to the manuscript.
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