Metallurgical Fundamentals of Quenching

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to outline the basic concepts of physical metallurgy relating to the heat
treatment of steel.
Heat treatment is defined as subjecting a material to controlled heating and cooling cycles. The
number of cycles, temperature, and duration of the treatment depend on the material being
treated and the purpose for which it is treated. Heat treatments alter the microstructure and
mechanical properties of steel. Properties can be modified during the steel forming process to
facilitate its shaping, and modified again as needed with heat treatments to comply with the final
design.
The capacity of steel of modifying its microstructure and properties as a result of heat treatment
makes it one of the most versatile materials in engineering design. Steel components are
subjected to specific heat treatments to achieve the properties required for a given application.
Heat treatment is typically employed to optimize the properties of a specific steel grade, such as
strength and hardness, while balancing these with toughness and corrosion resistance. It is
noteworthy that depending on the specific heat treatment conditions applied, the mechanical
properties of a specific steel composition can vary across a wide range; for example, yield
strength can be increased from 200 to 2,500 MPa (30 to 360 Ksi) through quench–hardening
[1].
Quenching involves rapid and controlled cooling from a high temperature (above the critical
temperature of steel). The cooling rate (in °C/s or °F/s) and chemical composition of the material
subjected to quenching are primarily responsible for the types and extents of transformations
that occur in the microstructure of the material; thus, the cooling rate is key to the properties
obtained. The quench-hardening of steel produces the hardest and most brittle structures.
Tempering is a subsequent treatment carried out at moderate temperature to reduce the
strength and hardness obtained after quenching and increase toughness; i.e., it reduces the
brittleness of the material obtained.
The phases and microstructures of steel are considered in this chapter together with the
transformations observed and critical temperatures during heat treatment. Additionally, the
different types of steels, heat treatments, and their purposes are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Quenchants and Quenching Technology
PublisherASM International
Chapter1
Number of pages66
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2019

Fingerprint

Quenching
Steel
Heat treatment
Cooling
Microstructure
Toughness
Specific heat
Steel heat treatment
Hardness
Rapid quenching
Temperature
Tempering
Metallurgy
Chemical analysis
Corrosion resistance
Hardening
Heating

Cite this

Lozano, D. E., Martínez-Cázares, G. M., & Bedolla-Gil, Y. (Accepted/In press). Metallurgical Fundamentals of Quenching. In Handbook of Quenchants and Quenching Technology ASM International.
Lozano, D.E. ; Martínez-Cázares, G.M ; Bedolla-Gil, Y. / Metallurgical Fundamentals of Quenching. Handbook of Quenchants and Quenching Technology. ASM International, 2019.
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Lozano, DE, Martínez-Cázares, GM & Bedolla-Gil, Y 2019, Metallurgical Fundamentals of Quenching. in Handbook of Quenchants and Quenching Technology. ASM International.

Metallurgical Fundamentals of Quenching. / Lozano, D.E.; Martínez-Cázares, G.M; Bedolla-Gil, Y.

Handbook of Quenchants and Quenching Technology. ASM International, 2019.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)

TY - CHAP

T1 - Metallurgical Fundamentals of Quenching

AU - Lozano, D.E.

AU - Martínez-Cázares, G.M

AU - Bedolla-Gil, Y.

PY - 2019

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N2 - The aim of this chapter is to outline the basic concepts of physical metallurgy relating to the heattreatment of steel.Heat treatment is defined as subjecting a material to controlled heating and cooling cycles. Thenumber of cycles, temperature, and duration of the treatment depend on the material beingtreated and the purpose for which it is treated. Heat treatments alter the microstructure andmechanical properties of steel. Properties can be modified during the steel forming process tofacilitate its shaping, and modified again as needed with heat treatments to comply with the finaldesign.The capacity of steel of modifying its microstructure and properties as a result of heat treatmentmakes it one of the most versatile materials in engineering design. Steel components aresubjected to specific heat treatments to achieve the properties required for a given application.Heat treatment is typically employed to optimize the properties of a specific steel grade, such asstrength and hardness, while balancing these with toughness and corrosion resistance. It isnoteworthy that depending on the specific heat treatment conditions applied, the mechanicalproperties of a specific steel composition can vary across a wide range; for example, yieldstrength can be increased from 200 to 2,500 MPa (30 to 360 Ksi) through quench–hardening[1].Quenching involves rapid and controlled cooling from a high temperature (above the criticaltemperature of steel). The cooling rate (in °C/s or °F/s) and chemical composition of the materialsubjected to quenching are primarily responsible for the types and extents of transformationsthat occur in the microstructure of the material; thus, the cooling rate is key to the propertiesobtained. The quench-hardening of steel produces the hardest and most brittle structures.Tempering is a subsequent treatment carried out at moderate temperature to reduce thestrength and hardness obtained after quenching and increase toughness; i.e., it reduces thebrittleness of the material obtained.The phases and microstructures of steel are considered in this chapter together with thetransformations observed and critical temperatures during heat treatment. Additionally, thedifferent types of steels, heat treatments, and their purposes are discussed.

AB - The aim of this chapter is to outline the basic concepts of physical metallurgy relating to the heattreatment of steel.Heat treatment is defined as subjecting a material to controlled heating and cooling cycles. Thenumber of cycles, temperature, and duration of the treatment depend on the material beingtreated and the purpose for which it is treated. Heat treatments alter the microstructure andmechanical properties of steel. Properties can be modified during the steel forming process tofacilitate its shaping, and modified again as needed with heat treatments to comply with the finaldesign.The capacity of steel of modifying its microstructure and properties as a result of heat treatmentmakes it one of the most versatile materials in engineering design. Steel components aresubjected to specific heat treatments to achieve the properties required for a given application.Heat treatment is typically employed to optimize the properties of a specific steel grade, such asstrength and hardness, while balancing these with toughness and corrosion resistance. It isnoteworthy that depending on the specific heat treatment conditions applied, the mechanicalproperties of a specific steel composition can vary across a wide range; for example, yieldstrength can be increased from 200 to 2,500 MPa (30 to 360 Ksi) through quench–hardening[1].Quenching involves rapid and controlled cooling from a high temperature (above the criticaltemperature of steel). The cooling rate (in °C/s or °F/s) and chemical composition of the materialsubjected to quenching are primarily responsible for the types and extents of transformationsthat occur in the microstructure of the material; thus, the cooling rate is key to the propertiesobtained. The quench-hardening of steel produces the hardest and most brittle structures.Tempering is a subsequent treatment carried out at moderate temperature to reduce thestrength and hardness obtained after quenching and increase toughness; i.e., it reduces thebrittleness of the material obtained.The phases and microstructures of steel are considered in this chapter together with thetransformations observed and critical temperatures during heat treatment. Additionally, thedifferent types of steels, heat treatments, and their purposes are discussed.

M3 - Chapter (peer-reviewed)

BT - Handbook of Quenchants and Quenching Technology

PB - ASM International

ER -

Lozano DE, Martínez-Cázares GM, Bedolla-Gil Y. Metallurgical Fundamentals of Quenching. In Handbook of Quenchants and Quenching Technology. ASM International. 2019