Low Serum Magnesium Levels and Its Association with High Blood Pressure in Children

Network of Childhood Obesity of the Mexican Social Security Institute

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32 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of hypomagnesemia with prehypertension (preHTN) and hypertension in children.

STUDY DESIGN: A total of 3954 apparently healthy Mexican children were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Exclusion criteria were type 2 diabetes; hepatic, renal, or endocrine disease; impaired fasting glucose; chronic diarrhea; and intake of vitamins or magnesium supplements in the previous 6 months. preHTN was defined by systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90th to <95th percentile and hypertension by systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥95th percentile, according to age, sex, and height percentile. Hypomagnesemia was defined by serum magnesium concentration <1.8 mg/dL (<0.74 mmol/L). To control for potential sources of bias related to age, participants were allocated into 2 groups, aged 6-10 years and 11-15 years.

RESULTS: The prevalence of preHTN and hypertension was 12.2% and 6.4%, respectively, in children aged 6-10 years and 13.9% and 10.6% in those aged 11-15 years. Hypomagnesemia was identified in 59 children with preHTN (27.3%) and 52 (45.6%) with hypertension in the 6-10 year age group, and in 115 children with preHTN (36.0%) and 109 (49.6%) with hypertension in the 11-15 year age group. Adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis showed that in children in both age groups, hypomagnesemia was associated with both preHTN (6-10 years: OR, 2.18, P < .0005; 11-15 years: OR, 1.38, P = .018) and hypertension (6-10 years: OR, 4.87, P < .0005; 11-15 years: OR, 1.83, P = .0002).

CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that serum magnesium level <1.8 mg/dL is significantly associated with preHTN and hypertension in apparently healthy children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-98.e1
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Supported by the Mexican Social Security Institute Foundation, California. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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