Low-density three-dimensional foam using self-reinforced hybrid two-dimensional atomic layers

Soumya Vinod, Chandra Sekhar Tiwary, Pedro Alves Da Silva Autreto, Jaime Taha-Tijerina, Sehmus Ozden, Alin Cristian Chipara, Robert Vajtai, Douglas S. Galvao, Tharangattu N. Narayanan, Pulickel M. Ajayan

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89 Citations (Scopus)


Low-density nanostructured foams are often limited in applications due to their low mechanical and thermal stabilities. Here we report an approach of building the structural units of three-dimensional (3D) foams using hybrid two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers made of stacked graphene oxide layers reinforced with conformal hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) platelets. The ultra-low density (1/400 times density of graphite) 3D porous structures are scalably synthesized using solution processing method. A layered 3D foam structure forms due to presence of h-BN and significant improvements in the mechanical properties are observed for the hybrid foam structures, over a range of temperatures, compared with pristine graphene oxide or reduced graphene oxide foams. It is found that domains of h-BN layers on the graphene oxide framework help to reinforce the 2D structural units, providing the observed improvement in mechanical integrity of the 3D foam structure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4541
JournalNature Communications
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jul 2014
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We acknowledge the funding support from U.S. Department of Defense: U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research for the Project MURI: ‘Synthesis and Characterization of 3-D Carbon Nanotube Solid Networks’ Award No. FA9550-12-1-0035. We also acknowledge the support by EAGER—NSF ECCS-1327093, CONACYT (213780) and INDO-US: IUSSTF/JC/22-2012/2013-14.

Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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