The study of nanoparticles as additives for metalworking fluids (MWFs) with applications in the metal removal processes, or machining, has received increasing attention due to the possible enhancements on tribological properties. In this study, low-cost and environmentally friendly nanoparticle additives of halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) were dispersed in metalworking fluids utilized for milling processes. Concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.10 wt. % were incorporated into a mineral oil (MO) and a semi-synthetic fluid (SF) by ultrasonication. The anti-wear properties of metalworking nanofluids were characterized with a T-05 block-on-ring tribotester at a contact pressure of 0.5 GPa. Surface roughness of worn block materials was obtained with an optical 3D surface measurement system. Results showed that at a concentration of 0.10 wt. % HNTs block mass loss was lowered by 24% for the MO + HNTs nanofluids. For the SF + HNTs, a reduction of 63% and 32% in wear mass loss and coefficient of friction (COF), respectively, were found at the same concentration. The tribological enhancing mechanism for the applied contact pressure was proposed to be due to a reduction of the area of contact and nanoparticle sliding between surfaces with no HNT deposition, evidenced by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Furthermore, surface roughness studies of worn blocks showed smoother surfaces with lower groove density with the addition of nanoparticle additives. The results of this study demonstrate that HNTs can improve the lubricity of metalworking cutting fluids used for machining processes, enhancing tool life and providing better surface finish of products.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Computer Science Applications
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes