Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is one of the most common of all congenital malformations and has a multifactorial etiology. Findings in mice suggest that the v-ski sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (SKI) gene is a candidate gene for orofacial clefting. In humans, a significant association between rs2843159 within SKI and NSCL/P has been reported in patients from the Philippines and South America. In the South American patients, the association was driven by the subgroup of patients with non-syndromic cleft lip only (NSCLO). Here we investigated the association with rs2843159 in a Mayan Mesoamerican population (172 NSCL/P patients and 366 controls). In addition, we analyzed the phenotypic subgroups NSCLO and non-syndromic cleft of lip and palate (NSCLP). A trend towards association between rs2843159 and NSCL/P was observed in the Mayan cohort (P = 0.097), and we found a stronger association in the NSCLP subgroup (P = 0.072) despite a limited sample size. To investigate whether other common variants within the SKI gene contribute to NSCL/P susceptibility in European and Asian populations, we also analyzed genotypic data from two recent genome-wide association studies using set-based statistical approaches. These analyses detected a trend toward association in the European population. Our data provide limited support for the hypothesis that common SKI variants are susceptibility factors for NSCL/P. © 2012 Eur J Oral Sci.