Latin America was fundamental in the intellectual formation of the founders of modern biology (e.g. Alexander von Humboldt, Charles Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace, Henry Bates and William D. Hamilton), but these pioneers directed their findings primarily to a European audience. Only later did European ethological influence reach Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela. From there, the study of behaviour moved to Ecuador and Colombia; Brazilians and Mexicans were further influenced by networks of researchers from the U.S.A. Latin American contributions to ethology and animal behaviour are broadly visible, with a few important centres, especially in Brazil and Mexico. More recently, there also has been a Latin American scientific diaspora, mainly to Europe, U.S.A., Canada and Australia (among other countries), with many ethologists and behavioural scientists becoming active members of the Animal Behavior Society. Latin American scholars, both those who stayed in Latin America and those who are part of the diaspora, have made significant scientific advances, while also demonstrating an ongoing commitment to the development of science in Latin America. Information on the ethology of endemic Latin American species has provided some fundamental theoretical insights, which have also enhanced ethological knowledge.
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