Background: There is scant information on the effect of supplementation with vitamin D3 in SARS-CoV-2 infection cases when patient 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] levels are between 20–100 ng/mL. We aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with vitamin D3 vs. dietary–hygienic measures on the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in participants with serum 25(OH)D3 levels ≥20 ng/mL. Methods: This study was quasi-experimental. We invited hospital workers with 25(OH)D3 levels between 20–100 ng/mL and no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. They were randomized as follows: treatment options were a) vitamin D3 supplementation (52,000 IU monthly, G1) or b) dietary–hygienic measures (G2). We conducted a 3- to 6-month follow-up of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Participants with 25(OH)D3 levels <20 ng/mL were also analyzed. We divided these latter participants depending on whether they were supplemented (G3) or not (G4). Results: We analyzed 198 participants, with an average age of 44.4 (SD 9) years, and 130 (65.7%) were women. G1 had fewer cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection than G2 after a follow-up of 3- to 6-months (p < 0.05). There were no differences between G3 and G4 at the 3- and 6-month follow-up cutoff points (p > 0.05). Using a mixed effect Cox regression analysis in the 164 participants that completed six months of follow-up, vitamin D3 supplementation appeared to act as a protective factor against SARS-CoV-2 infection (HR 0.21, p = 0.008) in G1 and G2. None of the participants treated with the supplementation doses had serum 25(OH)D3 levels >100 ng/mL. Conclusions: Vitamin D3 supplementation in participants with 25(OH)D3 levels between 20–100 ng/mL have a lower rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with the use of dietary–hygienic measures at six months follow-up.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)