Clustering for Innovative business models design: a “Business-cases” approach for products and services

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)

Abstract

The interest in the cluster approach as a philosophy for achieving regional competitiveness has growth. Organizations in common industries with similar operations are creating synergies to get access for more sophisticated services and customers, reducing manufacturing and logistics costs and creating integrated strategies for a specific geographical region to compete in a changing environment. The acceleration of technology evolution, customers’ requests of agility in operations, and the rapid product development requires the supply chains become more active and connected to attend clients and new markets. M. Porter’s 1990 suggest the cluster concept. Geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, in a particular field that compete but also cooperates. Integrated by specialized suppliers, service providers, and firms in related industries, associated institutions and financial services. The importance of clusters is centered in the opportunities that allow companies to be more productive and more innovative than they could be isolated, and clusters could reduce entry barriers for new business creation compared to other locations. Segmentation and clustering design is at the core and any efficient a focused supply chain. This is not only to address complexity issues but to effectively deal with dynamics of participants using different set of information and resources involved to deliver a product or service to end-customers. Nowadays, current supply chain systems are globalized and interconnected in terms of resources & manufacturing capacities, therefore supply chains require new paradigms, tools and techniques as well in order to stay competitive and address future challenges. Different techniques, tools and methodologies are proposed on this chapter to manage resources efficiently and deliver economic value to end customers. This chapter will be developed using 3 different & relevant business cases. These business cases will be addressing topics related to optimal location of hubs and service distribution, sourcing & supplier selection, risk optimization and supply chain in distribution channels among others. Customer segmentation is at the core of service strategy and innovation. Segmentation is not a trivial activity as it is related not only to how is the best usage of relevant input factors that can or cannot be in our control but mainly is to discover how those segments may have in common and difference about behavior, performance & motivations. On this chapter we focus on designing, developing and testing a set of clustering strategies dedicated on address different kind of business objectives. Depending on market sophistication and organization capabilities different kind of business models may be required in order to optimize supply chain costs and customer service levels and the same time. Furthermore, one of the key drivers of innovation activities among companies participating in industrial clusters is the quantity and quality of the logistics services and the supplier base. This is a very complex alignment not only in terms of demand fulfillment and time rate but also about how participants interacts in a win to win loop. The chapter content has structured on 3 business use cases. For each use case we propose and develop different set of techniques to deal with different pursues. We will discuss clustering design and multi-period planning optimization; attribution and multivariate causal analysis. The first section is related to the aerospace industry. This is especially relevant because most part of the innovation activities on aerospace industry take place within the value chain to ensure protection for proprietary industrial designs. After deregulation in the industry, new global value chains were born and each aerospace cluster started specializing in different parts of these global value chains, making the supplier base a key element in the cluster ecosystem. Several studies have related the capabilities of the supplier base with operational efficiency, productivity and even competitiveness: however there are few empirical research measuring the impact of the supplier base with innovation activities of aerospace companies participating in a cluster. The purpose of this research is to identify the influence of the quality and quantity of the supplier base in the innovation activities of aerospace companies participating in a cluster. México has become a major player in the aerospace industry; by 2020 it will be at the top 10 for aerospace production site. This research focused in the Mexican aerospace industry and gathered information from top executives participating in aerospace clusters. As part of the design and methodology we applied a framework based on factor analysis and multivariate linear regression to measure the impact of the quality and quantity of a set of suppliers participating in this aerospace cluster. Our hypothesis are related as how these factors (i.e. independent variables) generate a positive impact on the innovation as the response variable for the group of aerospace companies involved on the cluster. Our results showed that the quality and specialization of suppliers have a positive and statistically significant impact on the innovation activities carried out by the aerospace companies that are part of a cluster. These results are consistent with the literature review and have important implications for cluster management and value chain management The second section will be about a business use case related to operation of Micro Finance institutions (MFIs). There is no doubt these organizations play an important role in emerging economies as part of the programs that aim to reduce income inequality and poverty. A territory design planning that balances the risk of branches is important for the profitability and long-term sustainability of a MFI. In order to address such particular business needs, this section proposes a novel risk-balanced territory planning model for a MFI. We design and propose and full featured optimization framework based on a mixed integer programming model. Using this framework we capacitate the MFI choose the set of best locations of the branches to be designated as territory centers (i.e. operation hubs) and allocate the customers (i.e. shoppers) to these centers with respect to different planning criteria such as the total workload, monetary amount of loans and profit allocation while balancing the territory risk. This model is solved using a branch and cut based hybrid-heuristic framework. We will discuss the impact of the risk balancing and merits of the proposed model. The third section is related to logistics and transportation services and the firms’ capabilities to satisfy a cluster initiative. In today’s competitive environment, management of logistics operations are becoming a competitive advantage. Producers are looking for the most effective manner to optimize costs into minimal but without affecting the accepted services level, centering logistics as a valuable activity that can be managed globally guaranteeing on time arrivals to the customers in the needed quantities and at the lowest cost from origin points to consumption points. Due the inter-dependency of logistics activities, the definition of hubs and cross-dock locations becomes strategical, in addition the warehousing capacity and sites to achieve the target service level and reduce losses in global supply chains. The present research is focus in Mexican logistics carriers to serve the manufactured products supply chains. The purpose is to explain if the logistics activities, in a particular region where the transportation services are agglomerated, could be horizontally integrated among different companies with similar requirements, associated in a cluster, by creating economies of scale in materials transport, and through these strategic alliances and synergies become more efficient and competitive. Since the Northeastern region is very active on international trade operations and a critical mass of transportation services is intensive, the region is the focus of this research, by gathering data from executives of transportation firms. The data analysis technique applied as part of the methodology was multivariate linear regression, to test the impact of the agglomeration and synergies. As a result, the statistical significance of allocation and the impact of synergies was display to contrast the hypothesis associated to the capabilities of the transportation logistics firms to become a cluster, and their implications on supply chains.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIndustrial Applications for Improved Supply Chain Performance
PublisherIGI Global Publishing
Publication statusSubmitted - 8 Apr 2019

Fingerprint

Clustering
Business model
Business case
Aerospace
Suppliers
Logistics
Supply chain
Innovation activities
Synergy
Planning
Aerospace industry
Microfinance
Costs
Hub
Integrated
Resources
Industry
Service levels
Methodology
Factors

Cite this

De la Mora Velazco, A. E. (2019). Clustering for Innovative business models design: a “Business-cases” approach for products and services. Manuscript submitted for publication. In Industrial Applications for Improved Supply Chain Performance IGI Global Publishing.
De la Mora Velazco, Ana Elena. / Clustering for Innovative business models design: a “Business-cases” approach for products and services. Industrial Applications for Improved Supply Chain Performance. IGI Global Publishing, 2019.
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abstract = "The interest in the cluster approach as a philosophy for achieving regional competitiveness has growth. Organizations in common industries with similar operations are creating synergies to get access for more sophisticated services and customers, reducing manufacturing and logistics costs and creating integrated strategies for a specific geographical region to compete in a changing environment. The acceleration of technology evolution, customers’ requests of agility in operations, and the rapid product development requires the supply chains become more active and connected to attend clients and new markets. M. Porter’s 1990 suggest the cluster concept. Geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, in a particular field that compete but also cooperates. Integrated by specialized suppliers, service providers, and firms in related industries, associated institutions and financial services. The importance of clusters is centered in the opportunities that allow companies to be more productive and more innovative than they could be isolated, and clusters could reduce entry barriers for new business creation compared to other locations. Segmentation and clustering design is at the core and any efficient a focused supply chain. This is not only to address complexity issues but to effectively deal with dynamics of participants using different set of information and resources involved to deliver a product or service to end-customers. Nowadays, current supply chain systems are globalized and interconnected in terms of resources & manufacturing capacities, therefore supply chains require new paradigms, tools and techniques as well in order to stay competitive and address future challenges. Different techniques, tools and methodologies are proposed on this chapter to manage resources efficiently and deliver economic value to end customers. This chapter will be developed using 3 different & relevant business cases. These business cases will be addressing topics related to optimal location of hubs and service distribution, sourcing & supplier selection, risk optimization and supply chain in distribution channels among others. Customer segmentation is at the core of service strategy and innovation. Segmentation is not a trivial activity as it is related not only to how is the best usage of relevant input factors that can or cannot be in our control but mainly is to discover how those segments may have in common and difference about behavior, performance & motivations. On this chapter we focus on designing, developing and testing a set of clustering strategies dedicated on address different kind of business objectives. Depending on market sophistication and organization capabilities different kind of business models may be required in order to optimize supply chain costs and customer service levels and the same time. Furthermore, one of the key drivers of innovation activities among companies participating in industrial clusters is the quantity and quality of the logistics services and the supplier base. This is a very complex alignment not only in terms of demand fulfillment and time rate but also about how participants interacts in a win to win loop. The chapter content has structured on 3 business use cases. For each use case we propose and develop different set of techniques to deal with different pursues. We will discuss clustering design and multi-period planning optimization; attribution and multivariate causal analysis. The first section is related to the aerospace industry. This is especially relevant because most part of the innovation activities on aerospace industry take place within the value chain to ensure protection for proprietary industrial designs. After deregulation in the industry, new global value chains were born and each aerospace cluster started specializing in different parts of these global value chains, making the supplier base a key element in the cluster ecosystem. Several studies have related the capabilities of the supplier base with operational efficiency, productivity and even competitiveness: however there are few empirical research measuring the impact of the supplier base with innovation activities of aerospace companies participating in a cluster. The purpose of this research is to identify the influence of the quality and quantity of the supplier base in the innovation activities of aerospace companies participating in a cluster. M{\'e}xico has become a major player in the aerospace industry; by 2020 it will be at the top 10 for aerospace production site. This research focused in the Mexican aerospace industry and gathered information from top executives participating in aerospace clusters. As part of the design and methodology we applied a framework based on factor analysis and multivariate linear regression to measure the impact of the quality and quantity of a set of suppliers participating in this aerospace cluster. Our hypothesis are related as how these factors (i.e. independent variables) generate a positive impact on the innovation as the response variable for the group of aerospace companies involved on the cluster. Our results showed that the quality and specialization of suppliers have a positive and statistically significant impact on the innovation activities carried out by the aerospace companies that are part of a cluster. These results are consistent with the literature review and have important implications for cluster management and value chain management The second section will be about a business use case related to operation of Micro Finance institutions (MFIs). There is no doubt these organizations play an important role in emerging economies as part of the programs that aim to reduce income inequality and poverty. A territory design planning that balances the risk of branches is important for the profitability and long-term sustainability of a MFI. In order to address such particular business needs, this section proposes a novel risk-balanced territory planning model for a MFI. We design and propose and full featured optimization framework based on a mixed integer programming model. Using this framework we capacitate the MFI choose the set of best locations of the branches to be designated as territory centers (i.e. operation hubs) and allocate the customers (i.e. shoppers) to these centers with respect to different planning criteria such as the total workload, monetary amount of loans and profit allocation while balancing the territory risk. This model is solved using a branch and cut based hybrid-heuristic framework. We will discuss the impact of the risk balancing and merits of the proposed model. The third section is related to logistics and transportation services and the firms’ capabilities to satisfy a cluster initiative. In today’s competitive environment, management of logistics operations are becoming a competitive advantage. Producers are looking for the most effective manner to optimize costs into minimal but without affecting the accepted services level, centering logistics as a valuable activity that can be managed globally guaranteeing on time arrivals to the customers in the needed quantities and at the lowest cost from origin points to consumption points. Due the inter-dependency of logistics activities, the definition of hubs and cross-dock locations becomes strategical, in addition the warehousing capacity and sites to achieve the target service level and reduce losses in global supply chains. The present research is focus in Mexican logistics carriers to serve the manufactured products supply chains. The purpose is to explain if the logistics activities, in a particular region where the transportation services are agglomerated, could be horizontally integrated among different companies with similar requirements, associated in a cluster, by creating economies of scale in materials transport, and through these strategic alliances and synergies become more efficient and competitive. Since the Northeastern region is very active on international trade operations and a critical mass of transportation services is intensive, the region is the focus of this research, by gathering data from executives of transportation firms. The data analysis technique applied as part of the methodology was multivariate linear regression, to test the impact of the agglomeration and synergies. As a result, the statistical significance of allocation and the impact of synergies was display to contrast the hypothesis associated to the capabilities of the transportation logistics firms to become a cluster, and their implications on supply chains.",
author = "{De la Mora Velazco}, {Ana Elena}",
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De la Mora Velazco, AE 2019, Clustering for Innovative business models design: a “Business-cases” approach for products and services. in Industrial Applications for Improved Supply Chain Performance. IGI Global Publishing.

Clustering for Innovative business models design: a “Business-cases” approach for products and services. / De la Mora Velazco, Ana Elena.

Industrial Applications for Improved Supply Chain Performance. IGI Global Publishing, 2019.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)

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T1 - Clustering for Innovative business models design: a “Business-cases” approach for products and services

AU - De la Mora Velazco, Ana Elena

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N2 - The interest in the cluster approach as a philosophy for achieving regional competitiveness has growth. Organizations in common industries with similar operations are creating synergies to get access for more sophisticated services and customers, reducing manufacturing and logistics costs and creating integrated strategies for a specific geographical region to compete in a changing environment. The acceleration of technology evolution, customers’ requests of agility in operations, and the rapid product development requires the supply chains become more active and connected to attend clients and new markets. M. Porter’s 1990 suggest the cluster concept. Geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, in a particular field that compete but also cooperates. Integrated by specialized suppliers, service providers, and firms in related industries, associated institutions and financial services. The importance of clusters is centered in the opportunities that allow companies to be more productive and more innovative than they could be isolated, and clusters could reduce entry barriers for new business creation compared to other locations. Segmentation and clustering design is at the core and any efficient a focused supply chain. This is not only to address complexity issues but to effectively deal with dynamics of participants using different set of information and resources involved to deliver a product or service to end-customers. Nowadays, current supply chain systems are globalized and interconnected in terms of resources & manufacturing capacities, therefore supply chains require new paradigms, tools and techniques as well in order to stay competitive and address future challenges. Different techniques, tools and methodologies are proposed on this chapter to manage resources efficiently and deliver economic value to end customers. This chapter will be developed using 3 different & relevant business cases. These business cases will be addressing topics related to optimal location of hubs and service distribution, sourcing & supplier selection, risk optimization and supply chain in distribution channels among others. Customer segmentation is at the core of service strategy and innovation. Segmentation is not a trivial activity as it is related not only to how is the best usage of relevant input factors that can or cannot be in our control but mainly is to discover how those segments may have in common and difference about behavior, performance & motivations. On this chapter we focus on designing, developing and testing a set of clustering strategies dedicated on address different kind of business objectives. Depending on market sophistication and organization capabilities different kind of business models may be required in order to optimize supply chain costs and customer service levels and the same time. Furthermore, one of the key drivers of innovation activities among companies participating in industrial clusters is the quantity and quality of the logistics services and the supplier base. This is a very complex alignment not only in terms of demand fulfillment and time rate but also about how participants interacts in a win to win loop. The chapter content has structured on 3 business use cases. For each use case we propose and develop different set of techniques to deal with different pursues. We will discuss clustering design and multi-period planning optimization; attribution and multivariate causal analysis. The first section is related to the aerospace industry. This is especially relevant because most part of the innovation activities on aerospace industry take place within the value chain to ensure protection for proprietary industrial designs. After deregulation in the industry, new global value chains were born and each aerospace cluster started specializing in different parts of these global value chains, making the supplier base a key element in the cluster ecosystem. Several studies have related the capabilities of the supplier base with operational efficiency, productivity and even competitiveness: however there are few empirical research measuring the impact of the supplier base with innovation activities of aerospace companies participating in a cluster. The purpose of this research is to identify the influence of the quality and quantity of the supplier base in the innovation activities of aerospace companies participating in a cluster. México has become a major player in the aerospace industry; by 2020 it will be at the top 10 for aerospace production site. This research focused in the Mexican aerospace industry and gathered information from top executives participating in aerospace clusters. As part of the design and methodology we applied a framework based on factor analysis and multivariate linear regression to measure the impact of the quality and quantity of a set of suppliers participating in this aerospace cluster. Our hypothesis are related as how these factors (i.e. independent variables) generate a positive impact on the innovation as the response variable for the group of aerospace companies involved on the cluster. Our results showed that the quality and specialization of suppliers have a positive and statistically significant impact on the innovation activities carried out by the aerospace companies that are part of a cluster. These results are consistent with the literature review and have important implications for cluster management and value chain management The second section will be about a business use case related to operation of Micro Finance institutions (MFIs). There is no doubt these organizations play an important role in emerging economies as part of the programs that aim to reduce income inequality and poverty. A territory design planning that balances the risk of branches is important for the profitability and long-term sustainability of a MFI. In order to address such particular business needs, this section proposes a novel risk-balanced territory planning model for a MFI. We design and propose and full featured optimization framework based on a mixed integer programming model. Using this framework we capacitate the MFI choose the set of best locations of the branches to be designated as territory centers (i.e. operation hubs) and allocate the customers (i.e. shoppers) to these centers with respect to different planning criteria such as the total workload, monetary amount of loans and profit allocation while balancing the territory risk. This model is solved using a branch and cut based hybrid-heuristic framework. We will discuss the impact of the risk balancing and merits of the proposed model. The third section is related to logistics and transportation services and the firms’ capabilities to satisfy a cluster initiative. In today’s competitive environment, management of logistics operations are becoming a competitive advantage. Producers are looking for the most effective manner to optimize costs into minimal but without affecting the accepted services level, centering logistics as a valuable activity that can be managed globally guaranteeing on time arrivals to the customers in the needed quantities and at the lowest cost from origin points to consumption points. Due the inter-dependency of logistics activities, the definition of hubs and cross-dock locations becomes strategical, in addition the warehousing capacity and sites to achieve the target service level and reduce losses in global supply chains. The present research is focus in Mexican logistics carriers to serve the manufactured products supply chains. The purpose is to explain if the logistics activities, in a particular region where the transportation services are agglomerated, could be horizontally integrated among different companies with similar requirements, associated in a cluster, by creating economies of scale in materials transport, and through these strategic alliances and synergies become more efficient and competitive. Since the Northeastern region is very active on international trade operations and a critical mass of transportation services is intensive, the region is the focus of this research, by gathering data from executives of transportation firms. The data analysis technique applied as part of the methodology was multivariate linear regression, to test the impact of the agglomeration and synergies. As a result, the statistical significance of allocation and the impact of synergies was display to contrast the hypothesis associated to the capabilities of the transportation logistics firms to become a cluster, and their implications on supply chains.

AB - The interest in the cluster approach as a philosophy for achieving regional competitiveness has growth. Organizations in common industries with similar operations are creating synergies to get access for more sophisticated services and customers, reducing manufacturing and logistics costs and creating integrated strategies for a specific geographical region to compete in a changing environment. The acceleration of technology evolution, customers’ requests of agility in operations, and the rapid product development requires the supply chains become more active and connected to attend clients and new markets. M. Porter’s 1990 suggest the cluster concept. Geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, in a particular field that compete but also cooperates. Integrated by specialized suppliers, service providers, and firms in related industries, associated institutions and financial services. The importance of clusters is centered in the opportunities that allow companies to be more productive and more innovative than they could be isolated, and clusters could reduce entry barriers for new business creation compared to other locations. Segmentation and clustering design is at the core and any efficient a focused supply chain. This is not only to address complexity issues but to effectively deal with dynamics of participants using different set of information and resources involved to deliver a product or service to end-customers. Nowadays, current supply chain systems are globalized and interconnected in terms of resources & manufacturing capacities, therefore supply chains require new paradigms, tools and techniques as well in order to stay competitive and address future challenges. Different techniques, tools and methodologies are proposed on this chapter to manage resources efficiently and deliver economic value to end customers. This chapter will be developed using 3 different & relevant business cases. These business cases will be addressing topics related to optimal location of hubs and service distribution, sourcing & supplier selection, risk optimization and supply chain in distribution channels among others. Customer segmentation is at the core of service strategy and innovation. Segmentation is not a trivial activity as it is related not only to how is the best usage of relevant input factors that can or cannot be in our control but mainly is to discover how those segments may have in common and difference about behavior, performance & motivations. On this chapter we focus on designing, developing and testing a set of clustering strategies dedicated on address different kind of business objectives. Depending on market sophistication and organization capabilities different kind of business models may be required in order to optimize supply chain costs and customer service levels and the same time. Furthermore, one of the key drivers of innovation activities among companies participating in industrial clusters is the quantity and quality of the logistics services and the supplier base. This is a very complex alignment not only in terms of demand fulfillment and time rate but also about how participants interacts in a win to win loop. The chapter content has structured on 3 business use cases. For each use case we propose and develop different set of techniques to deal with different pursues. We will discuss clustering design and multi-period planning optimization; attribution and multivariate causal analysis. The first section is related to the aerospace industry. This is especially relevant because most part of the innovation activities on aerospace industry take place within the value chain to ensure protection for proprietary industrial designs. After deregulation in the industry, new global value chains were born and each aerospace cluster started specializing in different parts of these global value chains, making the supplier base a key element in the cluster ecosystem. Several studies have related the capabilities of the supplier base with operational efficiency, productivity and even competitiveness: however there are few empirical research measuring the impact of the supplier base with innovation activities of aerospace companies participating in a cluster. The purpose of this research is to identify the influence of the quality and quantity of the supplier base in the innovation activities of aerospace companies participating in a cluster. México has become a major player in the aerospace industry; by 2020 it will be at the top 10 for aerospace production site. This research focused in the Mexican aerospace industry and gathered information from top executives participating in aerospace clusters. As part of the design and methodology we applied a framework based on factor analysis and multivariate linear regression to measure the impact of the quality and quantity of a set of suppliers participating in this aerospace cluster. Our hypothesis are related as how these factors (i.e. independent variables) generate a positive impact on the innovation as the response variable for the group of aerospace companies involved on the cluster. Our results showed that the quality and specialization of suppliers have a positive and statistically significant impact on the innovation activities carried out by the aerospace companies that are part of a cluster. These results are consistent with the literature review and have important implications for cluster management and value chain management The second section will be about a business use case related to operation of Micro Finance institutions (MFIs). There is no doubt these organizations play an important role in emerging economies as part of the programs that aim to reduce income inequality and poverty. A territory design planning that balances the risk of branches is important for the profitability and long-term sustainability of a MFI. In order to address such particular business needs, this section proposes a novel risk-balanced territory planning model for a MFI. We design and propose and full featured optimization framework based on a mixed integer programming model. Using this framework we capacitate the MFI choose the set of best locations of the branches to be designated as territory centers (i.e. operation hubs) and allocate the customers (i.e. shoppers) to these centers with respect to different planning criteria such as the total workload, monetary amount of loans and profit allocation while balancing the territory risk. This model is solved using a branch and cut based hybrid-heuristic framework. We will discuss the impact of the risk balancing and merits of the proposed model. The third section is related to logistics and transportation services and the firms’ capabilities to satisfy a cluster initiative. In today’s competitive environment, management of logistics operations are becoming a competitive advantage. Producers are looking for the most effective manner to optimize costs into minimal but without affecting the accepted services level, centering logistics as a valuable activity that can be managed globally guaranteeing on time arrivals to the customers in the needed quantities and at the lowest cost from origin points to consumption points. Due the inter-dependency of logistics activities, the definition of hubs and cross-dock locations becomes strategical, in addition the warehousing capacity and sites to achieve the target service level and reduce losses in global supply chains. The present research is focus in Mexican logistics carriers to serve the manufactured products supply chains. The purpose is to explain if the logistics activities, in a particular region where the transportation services are agglomerated, could be horizontally integrated among different companies with similar requirements, associated in a cluster, by creating economies of scale in materials transport, and through these strategic alliances and synergies become more efficient and competitive. Since the Northeastern region is very active on international trade operations and a critical mass of transportation services is intensive, the region is the focus of this research, by gathering data from executives of transportation firms. The data analysis technique applied as part of the methodology was multivariate linear regression, to test the impact of the agglomeration and synergies. As a result, the statistical significance of allocation and the impact of synergies was display to contrast the hypothesis associated to the capabilities of the transportation logistics firms to become a cluster, and their implications on supply chains.

M3 - Chapter (peer-reviewed)

BT - Industrial Applications for Improved Supply Chain Performance

PB - IGI Global Publishing

ER -

De la Mora Velazco AE. Clustering for Innovative business models design: a “Business-cases” approach for products and services. In Industrial Applications for Improved Supply Chain Performance. IGI Global Publishing. 2019