Gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas are one of the world’s deadliest cancers. Cancer stem cells and the tissue microenvironment are highly regulated by cell and molecular mechanisms. Cancer stem cells are essential for maintenance and progression and are associated with resistance to conventional treatments. This article reviews the current knowledge of the role of the microenvironment during the primary establishment of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas in the stomach, colon, and rectum and its relationship with cancer stem cells. We also describe novel developments in cancer therapeutics, such as targeted therapy, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different treatments for improving gastrointestinal cancer prognosis.
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© 2022 by the authors.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research