2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its derivatives are nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds having chemical and thermal stability at ambient temperature and pressure. TNT has high toxicity and mutagenic activity to humans, plants and animals, thus decontamination processes are necessary. Many microorganisms are capable to bioremediate TNT such as bacteria from the genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Clostridium and Desulfovibrio; fungus such as Phanerochate and Stropharia species are able to perform TNT biotransformation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In this work we review the state of TNT biodegradation by various routes: aerobic, anaerobic, combined, fungal, enzymatic, and bio-electrochemical.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors want to thank the Director of the School of Engineering and Science , Tecnológico de Monterrey , Campus Monterrey for his encouragement and financial support. We acknowledge the financial support from CONACYT (Mexico) PhD scholarship No. 309171 for CCZ, SNI-C fellowship to RC and MR, FR. Author also thanks Aavesh green sustainability solutions S. De R. L. De. C. V. for their support.
Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computational Mechanics
- Ceramics and Composites
- Mechanical Engineering
- Metals and Alloys