Association Between Iron-Related Protein Lipocalin 2 and Cognitive Impairment in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum

Sofia Pereira das Neves, Ricardo Taipa, Fernanda Marques, Patrício Soares Costa, Joel Monárrez-Espino, Joana A. Palha*, Miia Kivipelto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


A worldwide increase in longevity is bringing novel challenges to public health and health care professionals. Cognitive impairment in the elderly may compromise living conditions and precede Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most prevalent form of dementia. Therefore, finding molecular markers associated with cognitive impairment is of crucial importance. Lipocalin 2 (LCN2), an iron-related protein, has been suggested as a potential marker for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. This study aimed at investigating the association between LCN2 measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with cognitive impairment. A cross-sectional design based on two aging cohorts was used: individuals diagnosed with subjective cognitive complaints (SCC), MCI, and AD from a Swedish memory clinic-based cohort, and individuals diagnosed with SCC and AD from a Portuguese cohort. Binary logistic [for the outcome cognitive impairment (MCI + AD) in the Swedish cohort and AD in the Portuguese cohort] and multinomial logistic (for the outcomes MCI and AD) regression analyses were used. No associations were found in both cohorts when controlling for sex, education, and age. This explanatory study suggests that the association between serum and CSF LCN2 concentrations with cognitive impairment reported in the literature must be further analyzed for confounders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number663837
Pages (from-to)663837
JournalFrontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The work at ICVS/3B’s was funded by National funds, through the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT)—project UIDB/50026/2020, and through the Northern Portugal Regional Operational Program (NORTE 2020), under the Portugal 2020 Partnership Agreement—project NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000013 and by the project NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000039, supported by NORTE 2020. SPN is a recipient of a PhD fellowship with the reference PD/BD/114120/2015, from MCTES national funds. The work at Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto (CHUP) was funded by ‘‘Bolsa para Investigação’’ of Departamento de Ensino, Formação e Investigação of CHUP.

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2021 das Neves, Taipa, Marques, Soares Costa, Monárrez-Espino, Palha and Kivipelto.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ageing
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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