Analysis of immunization time, amplitude, and adverse events of seven different vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 across four different countries

Maria Elena Romero-Ibarguengoitia, Arnulfo González-Cantú, Chiara Pozzi, Riccardo Levi, Maximiliano Mollura, Riccardo Sarti, Miguel Ángel Sanz-Sánchez, Diego Rivera-Salinas, Yodira Guadalupe Hernández-Ruíz, Ana Gabriela Armendariz-Vázquez, Gerardo Francisco Del Rio-Parra, Irene Antonieta Barco-Flores, Rosalinda González-Facio, Elena Azzolini, Riccardo Barbieri, Alessandro Rodrigo de Azevedo Dias, Milton Henriques Guimarães Júnior, Alessandra Bastos-Borges, Cecilia Acciardi, Graciela Paez-BoMauro Martins Teixeira, Maria Rescigno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Scarce information exists in relation to the comparison of seroconversion and adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with different SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Our aim was to correlate the magnitude of the antibody response to vaccination with previous clinical conditions and AEFI. Methods: A multicentric comparative study where SARS-CoV-2 spike 1-2 IgG antibodies IgG titers were measured at baseline, 21-28 days after the first and second dose (when applicable) of the following vaccines: BNT162b2 mRNA, mRNA-1273, Gam-COVID-Vac, Coronavac, ChAdOx1-S, Ad5-nCoV and Ad26.COV2. Mixed model and Poisson generalized linear models were performed. Results: We recruited 1867 individuals [52 (SD 16.8) years old, 52% men]. All vaccines enhanced anti-S1 and anti-S2 IgG antibodies over time (p<0.01). The highest increase after the first and second dose was observed in mRNA-1273 (p<0.001). There was an effect of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection; and an interaction of age with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, Gam-COVID-Vac and ChAdOx1-S (p<0.01). There was a negative correlation of Severe or Systemic AEFI (AEs) of naïve SARS-CoV-2 subjects with age and sex (p<0.001); a positive interaction between the delta of antibodies with Gam-COVID-Vac (p=0.002). Coronavac, Gam-COVID-Vac and ChAdOx1-S had less AEs compared to BNT162b (p<0.01). mRNA-1273 had the highest number of AEFIs. The delta of the antibodies showed an association with AEFIs in previously infected individuals (p<0.001). Conclusions: The magnitude of seroconversion is predicted by age, vaccine type and SARS-CoV-2 exposure. AEs are correlated with age, sex, and vaccine type. The delta of the antibody response only correlates with AEs in patients previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Registration number:, identifier NCT05228912.

Original languageEnglish
Article number894277
Pages (from-to)894277
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was conducted using private funding from Techint Group of Companies. The funders had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, and decision to publish.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 Romero-Ibarguengoitia, González-Cantú, Pozzi, Levi, Mollura, Sarti, Sanz-Sánchez, Rivera-Salinas, Hernández-Ruíz, Armendariz-Vázquez, Del Rio-Parra, Barco-Flores, González-Facio, Azzolini, Barbieri, de Azevedo Dias, Henriques Guimarães Júnior, Bastos-Borges, Acciardi, Paez-Bo, Teixeira and Rescigno.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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