Traditional nixtamalization produces the “gold standard” tortilla, but the process is ecologically nonviable, and high nutrimental and phytochemical losses are reported. Many alternative nixtamalization technologies have emerged and at least fourteen processes have been reported with scientific evidence in improving the nutrimental/nutraceutical properties, reduction of contaminant effluents, processing time and water use. Despite all the alternative processes developed during the last decades, none of them has been successfully adopted by the tortilla industry because of the extra equipment and time required to implement those new technologies even when the nutritional and sensorial benefits of the obtained products have been proven. The objective of this review is to propound a new classification according to their principal purposes, and describe in detail the most important alternative technologies to produce tortillas and the specifications about the processing factors involved, including their advantages, disadvantages, and disagreements of each one. Moreover, chemical, nutrimental and functional properties affected by the different processes are addressed from the grain, nixtamal, nixtamalized flours, masa, and tortillas.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Chemical Engineering(all)