A snapshot of antimicrobial resistance in Mexico. Results from 47 centers from 20 states during a six-month period

Elvira Garza-González, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Samantha Flores-Treviño, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, Domingo Sanchez-Francia, Rafael Franco-Cendejas, Sara Arroyo-Escalante, Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Fabián Rojas-Larios, Luis J Quintanilla, Joyarit Y Maldonado-Anicacio, Rafael Martínez-Miranda, Heidy L Ostos-Cantú, Abraham Gomez-Choel, Juan L Jaime-Sanchez, Laura K Avilés-Benítez, José M Feliciano-GuzmánCynthia D Peña-López, Carlos A Couoh-May, Aaron Molina-Jaimes, Elda G Vázquez-Narvaez, Joaquín Rincón-Zuno, Raúl Rivera-Garay, Aurelio Galindo-Espinoza, Andrés Martínez-Ramirez, Javier P Mora, Reyna E Corte-Rojas, Ismelda López-Ovilla, Víctor A Monroy-Colin, Juan M Barajas-Magallón, Cecilia T Morales-De-la-Peña, Efrén Aguirre-Burciaga, Mabel Coronado-Ramírez, Alina A Rosales-García, María-de-J Ayala-Tarín, Silvia Sida-Rodríguez, Bertha A Pérez-Vega, América Navarro-Rodríguez, Gloria E Juárez-Velázquez, Carlos Miguel Cetina-Umaña, Juan P Mena-Ramírez, Jorge Canizales-Oviedo, Martha Irene Moreno-Méndez, Daniel Romero-Romero, Alejandra Arévalo-Mejía, Dulce Isabel Cobos-Canul, Gilberto Aguilar-Orozco, Jesús Silva-Sánchez, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz

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Abstract

AIM: We aimed to assess the resistance rates of antimicrobial-resistant, in bacterial pathogens of epidemiological importance in 47 Mexican centers.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included a stratified sample of 47 centers, covering 20 Mexican states. Selected isolates considered as potential causatives of disease collected over a 6-month period were included. Laboratories employed their usual methods to perform microbiological studies. The results were deposited into a database and analyzed with the WHONET 5.6 software.

RESULTS: In this 6-month study, a total of 22,943 strains were included. Regarding Gram-negatives, carbapenem resistance was detected in ≤ 3% in Escherichia coli, 12.5% in Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp., and up to 40% in Pseudomonas aeruginosa; in the latter, the resistance rate for piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) was as high as 19.1%. In Acinetobacter sp., resistance rates for cefepime, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, and TZP were higher than 50%. Regarding Gram-positives, methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was as high as 21.4%, and vancomycin (VAN) resistance reached up to 21% in Enterococcus faecium. Acinetobacter sp. presented the highest multidrug resistance (53%) followed by Klebsiella sp. (22.6%) and E. coli (19.4%).

CONCLUSION: The multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter sp., Klebsiella sp. and E. coli and the carbapenem resistance in specific groups of enterobacteria deserve special attention in Mexico. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and MRSA are common in our hospitals. Our results present valuable information for the implementation of measures to control drug resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0209865
Pages (from-to)e0209865
JournalPLoS One
Volume14
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Mar 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) received no specific funding for this work. This collaborative study is the result of the enthusiastic work of the Network for the Research and Surveillance of Drug Resistance (Invifar for its acronym in Spanish). We wish to acknowledge other members of the INVIFAR group (S2 Table), which at present includes 68 centers from 27 out of 32 states of Mexico.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Garza-González et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Copyright:
Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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